Kognitionspsychologische Aspekte der willentlichen Stereotypkontrolle
2003, Achtziger, Anja
This dissertation investigates the possibility of intentionally controlling processes of stereotype activation and application that had long been considered to be uncontrollable. The guiding hypotheses was that such control could be attained by means of implementations intentions, which are assumed to be able to exert an automatic influence on both the activation and the application of stereotypes in impression formation.
In accordance with these hypotheses, two studies demonstrated that implementation intentions do have the power to control impression formation.
In the first study it was shown that, even under conditions of high cognitive load, subjects were able to control the application of a stereotype. Cognitive load was manipulated by using a paradigm of Baddeley`s (1996) by mean of which the functions of either the phonological loop or the central executive are impaired. Participants were subject to one of these two procedures whilst they were presented with stereotype-consistent and stereotype-inconsistent information about a target person. In accordance with the hypotheses, it was observed that only subjects who used an implementation intention that focused on processing the stereotype-inconsistent information about the target person, were able to control the stereotype`s application. In contrast, subjects who had formed no intention and subjects who had formed a goal intention were unable to do so.
The second study investigated the possibility of generating a differentiated activation of a stereotype in such a way that a positive evaluation of soccer fans could be attained. We discovered that, because of their highly specific mode of functioning, implementation intentions can successfully activate the positive attributes of a stereotype whilst simultaneously inhibiting the stereotypes negative attributes. Moreover this study demonstrated a flexible realisation of implementation intentions relative to the appropriateness of particular contexts.