Woll, Alexander


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Physical environment perceptions in rural and urban areas and their influence on adolescents’ walking and non-motorized vehicle use

2023-09-11, Klos, Leon, Fiedler, Janis, Nigg, Carina, Burchartz, Alexander, Hinz, Thomas, Wäsche, Hagen, Niessner, Claudia, Woll, Alexander

The article describes differences in perceived environment attributes across urbanicity levels and assesses the relationship between perceived environment, walking and use of non-motorized vehicles (NMV) in adolescents in urban and rural areas.


Family Health Climate : A Qualitative Exploration of Everyday Family Life and Health

2021, Wäsche, Hagen, Niermann, Christina, Bezold, Jelena, Woll, Alexander

Background The family is an important social environment for children’s, adolescents’ and adults’ health. However, studies mostly focused on dyadic and unidirectional influences of parents on their children. Studies addressing influences arising from daily family life and including family level influences are rare and the existing studies solely focus on the relevance for children’s health or health-related behaviors. We use a qualitative approach to explore how daily family life and its inherent health-related cues affect family members’ physical activity and eating behavior.

Methods Semi-structured interviews utilizing an interview guide were conducted. Since we aimed to examine family life, we analyzed both parents’ and their children’s views on health-related interaction patterns and family environmental influences on individuals’ health-related behavior. Twenty-two members of seven families were interviewed. Transcripts of the interviews were systematically analyzed following Grounded Theory principles.

Results The interviews revealed that various individual as well as environmental factors shape health-related aspects of daily family life. A model was developed that organizes these influencing factors on family life with regard to health-related interactions and the emergence of the Family Health Climate (FHC) – reflecting shared perceptions and cognitions regarding a healthy lifestyle within families – and its consequences. Family interactions and family time, often realized through shared family meals, are key factors for families’ health with regard to nutrition and physical activity. The FHC showed to affect various aspects related to health behavior of individual family members.

Conclusions The model allows to gain knowledge on underlying processes and mechanisms of family life that influences individuals’ health-related behavior. Based on a better understanding of the association between family life and individual health behavior the development of family-based interventions can be informed. Furthermore, the insights can help to guide further research focusing on families as a system.

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Ambulatory assessment for physical activity research : State of the science, best practices and future directions

2020-09, Reichert, Markus, Giurgiu, Marco, Koch, Elena, Wieland, Lena M., Lautenbach, Sven, Neubauer, Andreas B., von Haaren-Mack, Birte, Jekauc, Darko, Woll, Alexander, Kanning, Martina

Technological and digital progress benefits physical activity (PA) research. Here we compiled expert knowledge on how Ambulatory Assessment (AA) is utilized to advance PA research, i.e., we present results of the 2nd International CAPA Workshop 2019 “Physical Activity Assessment – State of the Science, Best Practices, Future Directions” where invited researchers with experience in PA assessment, evaluation, technology and application participated. First, we provide readers with the state of the AA science, then we give best practice recommendations on how to measure PA via AA and shed light on methodological frontiers, and we furthermore discuss future directions. AA encompasses a class of methods that allows the study of PA and its behavioral, biological and physiological correlates as they unfold in everyday life. AA includes monitoring of movement (e.g., via accelerometry), physiological function (e.g., via mobile electrocardiogram), contextual information (e.g., via geolocation-tracking), and ecological momentary assessment (EMA; e.g., electronic diaries) to capture self-reported information. The strengths of AA are data assessments near real-time, which minimize retrospective biases in real-world settings, consequentially enabling ecological valid findings. Importantly, AA enables multiple assessments across time within subjects resulting in intensive longitudinal data (ILD), which allows unraveling within-person determinants of PA in everyday life. In this paper, we show how AA methods such as triggered e-diaries and geolocation-tracking can be used to measure PA and its correlates, and furthermore how these findings may translate into real-life interventions. In sum, AA provides numerous possibilities for PA research, especially the opportunity to tackle within-subject antecedents, concomitants, and consequences of PA as they unfold in everyday life. In-depth insights on determinants of PA could help us design and deliver impactful interventions in real-world contexts, thus enabling us to solve critical health issues in the 21st century such as insufficient PA and high levels of sedentary behavior.


Social network analysis in sport research : an emerging paradigm

2017-05-03, Wäsche, Hagen, Dickson, Geoff, Woll, Alexander, Brandes, Ulrik

While network analysis is a major methodological approach in many disciplines of the social and natural sciences, it has only recently come into the focus of sport researchers. This article assesses the utility of network analysis to analyze sport phenomena. We begin with an overview of social network analysis (SNA) and related concepts. To explore research topics and approaches, we conduct a systematic review of empirical literature of SNA and its application to sport. Based on this review, we provide a six-dimensional conceptual typology of SNA applications in sport – competition networks, interaction networks, inter-organizational networks, intra-organizational networks, affiliation networks and social environments. Potential future directions for this promising approach in sport research are discussed.


Changes of Self-Rated Health Status, Overweight and Physical Activity During Childhood and Adolescence : The Ratchet Effect of High Parental Socioeconomic Status

2022-03-04, Rittsteiger, Lea, Hinz, Thomas, Oriwol, Doris, Wäsche, Hagen, Schmidt, Steffen, Kolb, Simon, Woll, Alexander

Childhood and adolescence are important life periods for the development of health status and physical activity (PA) behaviours. This study analyses the stability and potential changes of self-rated health status, overweight and PA behaviour over time, specifically focusing on the age and the socioeconomic status of children and adolescents. We employ representative longitudinal data for German children and adolescents from the Motorik-Modul Study and the German Health Interview and Examination Survey. Using four different dichotomous health status and PA indicators (self-rated health status [SRHS]; overweight; moderate-to-vigorous PA; and leisure sports engagement), we report within-person transition rates across the panel waves when the survey was taken (2003–2006, 2009–2012, and 2014–2017). Additionally, we report results of logistic regressions estimating the impact of children's age, gender, migration background, and their parents' socioeconomic status on these transition rates. The transition rates show mixed results. While children and adolescents from highly problematic states reporting bad SRHS and no leisure sports engagement at an early stage tend to improve later on, overweight children mostly stay overweight. Age and social inequality indicators correlate with some of the chances of improving or worsening the health and PA states. Most clearly, high parental status prevents the health status and PA from worsening over all transitions, particularly becoming overweight, representing a ratchet effect. The results of the present study underline that health policy needs to target specific groups to reduce social inequality in the health status and PA of children and adolescents.

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2021, Renner, Britta, Breyer, Friedrich, Reiterer, Harald, Schupp, Harald T., Sonnentag, Sabine, Woll, Alexander

Einleitung: Das Ziel des Verbundprojektes SMARTACT ist es, Interventionen zu entwickeln und zu testen, mit denen das gesunde Ernährungsverhalten und die körperliche Aktivität unter Einsatz mobiler Technologie gefördert werden. Mobile Anwendungen bieten die Möglichkeit, effektive Interventionen in realen Kontext, d.h. „im Moment“ der Verhaltensausführung für größere Zielgruppen zur Verfügung zu stellen.
Methoden: Das interdisziplinäre Konsortium besteht aus zwei Themen- (SMARTFOOD, SMARTMOVE) und Methodenbereichen (SMARTMOBILITY, SMARTECONOMICS) sowie der Konstanzer Life-Studie. Die mobilen Interventionen, die technisch durch SMARTMOBILITY umgesetzt werden, basieren auf aktuellen Verhaltensmustern, Verhaltensauslösern und situativen Kontexten (Familie, Arbeitsplatz). Ein Hauptfokus liegt auf der Verbesserung der Teilnehmeraktivität durch Hinweisreize und der Aufrechterhaltung von Verhaltensänderungen durch Kurzinterventionen. Des Weiteren erfolgt eine Kosten-Nutzen-Analyse der verschiedenen Interventionen.
Ergebnisse: SMARTACT hat in den beiden Themenbereichen (SMARTFOOD, SMARTMOVE) und den verschiedenen Lebensbereichen (Arbeitsplatz und Familie) vielversprechende Ergebnisse gewonnen. Wichtige Beispiele beinhalten eine Meta-Analyse zur Effektivität mobiler Interventionen zu Änderungen der Ernährung und Gesundheitsmarkern, mobile Interventionen zur Steigerung der Zufriedenheit mit Essen und Änderungen der Ernährung anhand intuitiver Heuristiken und Zielsetzungsstrategien im Alltag sowie im Berufskontext und Familienverbund. Ferner wurden neue Konzepte zur Steigerung der körperlichen Aktivität entwickelt.
Fazit: Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass mobile Interventionen im Bereich der Ernährung und körperlichen Aktivität einen wichtigen Beitrag zur Primärprävention leisten können.

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Hochintensives Intervalltraining im Sportunterricht

2018-03, Engel, Florian Azad, Scharenberg, Swantje, Bossmann, Thomas, Sperlich, Billy, Roth, Andreas, Woll, Alexander, Wagner, Matthias

Hintergrund und Ziel : Das Ziel der vorliegenden Studie war die Analyse der Effekte einer 6‑wöchigen Ausdauertrainingsintervention (hochintensives Intervalltraining [HIIT] vs. Grundlagenausdauer [GAT]) im Rahmen des Sportunterrichts auf motorische Leistung, subjektives Belastungsempfinden sowie psychische Stimmung von 11-jährigen Schüler/innen.
Methoden : In 6 Wochen absolvierten 85 Schüler/innen (Alter: 11,9 ± 0,9 Jahre) 11 Trainingseinheiten HIIT (ca. 20 min, Intervalle von 10 s–4 min mit ca. 90–100 % der durchschnittlichen Laufgeschwindigkeit des 6‑min-Laufes [vmittel]) oder GAT (30 min, Intervalle von 6–25 min mit ca. 65–85 % der vmittel). Vor und nach der Intervention wurden Körpergröße und -gewicht sowie die motorische Leistungsfähigkeit (20-m-Sprint, Standweitsprung, seitliches Hin- und Herspringen, Liegestütz, Sit-ups, 6‑min-Lauf) ermittelt. Die individuell wahrgenommene Anstrengung während HIIT bzw. GAT wurde nach jedem Training mittels Session-RPE-Skala und die individuelle Stimmung mittels Befindlichkeitsfragebogen ermittelt.
Ergebnisse : Die Laufdistanz im 6‑min-Lauf (p < 0,001; part. η2 = 0,473), 20-m-Sprint Zeit (p < 0,001; part. η2 = 0,226), Standweitsprungweite (p < 0,05; part. η2 = 0,056), Anzahl der Liegestütze (p < 0,001; part. η2 = 0,523) und Sit-ups in 40 s (p < 0,001; part. η2 = 0,146) verbesserten sich nach HIIT und GAT ohne signifikante Interaktion Zeit × Gruppe (mit Ausnahme der Anzahl der Sit-ups in 40 s [p < 0,05; part. η2 = 0,048]). RPE (p < 0,05) war höher und die Stimmung (p < 0,05) positiver nach HIIT.
Schlussfolgerungen : HIIT und GAT verbesserten die motorische Leistung gleichermaßen. Jedoch benötigte das HIIT im Vergleich zum GAT 30 % weniger Zeit. Da die Netto-Zeit im Sportunterricht limitiert ist, bietet HIIT eine neue Perspektive zur Verbesserung der Ausdauer und weiterer motorischer Leistungen von Schüler/innen. Die positive Stimmung nach HIIT unterstreicht die Anwendbarkeit von HIIT im Sportunterricht.


Sports participation of children and adolescents in Germany : disentangling the influence of parental socioeconomic status

2021-12, Rittsteiger, Lea, Hinz, Thomas, Oriwol, Doris, Wäsche, Hagen, Santos-Hövener, Claudia, Woll, Alexander

Participation in sports and physical activity (PA) is a critical resource for children’s health and social development. This study analyzes how the parental socioeconomic status (SES) of children and adolescents affects their PA in sports clubs (organized sports) and outside of sports clubs (unorganized sports) and tests whether the potential impact of parental SES is mediated by the opportunity structure of their residential area (walkability, infrastructure, etc.) and by family and peer support for PA. Furthermore, PA is analyzed respecting differences by gender and migration background.

Using representative data from the MoMo/KiGGS study (2009–2012 and 2014–2017), we take into account about 8000 measurements from about 7000 subjects. We estimate hurdle regression models to analyze the minutes per week spent on sports activities.

Results show that children with a higher parental SES, children living in areas with many opportunities for PA, and children receiving family and peer support are more physically active than children without these features. Controlled for opportunities and support, status effects are small but visible. The differences regarding parental SES are much more apparent for organized sports than for unorganized sports, indicating the relevance of economic resources. Boys are more active than girls, whereas there is no clear effect of migration background.

The coefficient of parental SES on organized sports most probably relates to the resources needed to participate in sports clubs, including fees and equipment. Lower membership fees might potentially help to integrate children with low parental SES into sports clubs and thereby make organized sports more accessible to all social classes.


Effects of a Collective Family-Based Mobile Health Intervention Called "SMARTFAMILY" on Promoting Physical Activity and Healthy Eating: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

2020-11-11, Wunsch, Kathrin, Eckert, Tobias, Fiedler, Janis, Cleven, Laura, Niermann, Christina, Reiterer, Harald, Renner, Britta, Woll, Alexander

Background: Numerous smartphone apps are targeting physical activity and healthy eating, but empirical evidence on their effectiveness for initialization and maintenance of behavior change, especially in children and adolescents, is still limited.

Objective: The aim of this study was to conceptualize a theory-based and evidence-based mHealth intervention called SMARTFAMILY (SF) that targets physical activity and healthy eating in a collective family-based setting. Subsequently, the app will be refined and re-evaluated to analyze additional effects of just-in-time adaptive interventions (JITAIs) and gamification features.

Methods: A smartphone app based on behavior change theories and behavior change techniques was developed and implemented and will be evaluated with family members individually and cooperatively (SF trial). Existing evidence and gained results were used to refine and will be used to re-evaluate the app (SF2.0 trial). Both trials are cluster randomized controlled trials with 3 measurement occasions. The intervention group uses the app for 3 consecutive weeks, whereas the control group receives no treatment. Baseline measurements (T0) and postintervention measurements (T1) include physical activity (ie, self-reported and accelerometry) and healthy eating measurements (ie, self-reported fruit and vegetable intake) as the primary outcomes. The secondary outcomes (ie, self-reported) are intrinsic motivation, behavior-specific self-efficacy, and the family health climate, complemented by an intentional measure in SF2.0. Four weeks following T1, a follow-up assessment (T2) is completed by the participants, consisting of all questionnaire items to assess the stability of the intervention effects. Mixed-method analysis of covariance will be used to calculate the primary intervention effects (ie, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake) while controlling for covariates, including family health climate, behavior-specific self-efficacy, and intrinsic motivation.

Results: This study is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research and ethically approved by the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. For both trials, it is hypothesized that the apps will positively influence physical activity and healthy eating in the whole family. Furthermore, SF2.0 is expected to produce stronger effects (ie, higher effect sizes) compared to SF. SF app development and piloting are completed. Data acquisition for the SF trial is terminated and discontinued due to the COVID-19 pandemic. SF2.0 app development and piloting are completed, while data acquisition is ongoing. Participant recruitment for the SF 2.0 trial started in February 2020. The results for SF are expected to be published in mid-2021, and the results of SF2.0 are expected to be published in mid-2022.

Conclusions: In this study, it is hypothesized that targeting the whole family will facilitate behavior change at the individual level and the family level, as the implemented strategies address changes in daily family life. Furthermore, subsequent app development (SF2.0) with supplementary addition of motivation-enhancing features and a JITAI approach is expected to enhance positive intervention effects.

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Vergleich gesundheitsrelevanter Verhaltensmuster von Jungen und Mädchen in Deutschland : Ergebnisse der MoMo Studie

2017-12, Spengler, Sarah, Mess, Filip, Woll, Alexander

Ziel der Studie:
Um die Gesundheit von Jugendlichen optimal fördern zu können ist es wichtig, typische jugendliche Verhaltensmuster zu kennen. Ziel der vorliegenden Untersuchung war es, geschlechtsspezifische gesundheitsrelevante Verhaltensmuster von Jugendlichen in Deutschland zu identifizieren und zu vergleichen.

Im Rahmen des KiGGS Surveys und der MoMo Studie wurden 832 Jungen und 811 Mädchen (11–17 Jahre) zum Gesundheitsverhalten befragt. Mit den Indices Aktivitätslevel, Ernährungsqualität und Medienkonsum wurden Clusteranalysen für Jungen und Mädchen getrennt durchgeführt.

Für beide Geschlechter konnten jeweils 4 Gesundheitsverhaltensmuster identifiziert werden, die sich hinsichtlich ihrer Ausprägungen ähneln, sich jedoch in Bezug auf Clustergröße, Ausprägungsstärke der Verhaltensweisen und Korrelate unterscheiden: Mädchen haben seltener ein sportorientiertes Verhaltensmuster als Jungen, Aktivitätslevel und Medienkonsum sind insgesamt bei den Verhaltensmustern der Mädchen schwächer ausgeprägt. Die Verhaltensmuster der Mädchen sind stärker als die der Jungen mit dem sozialen Status assoziiert, bei Jungen unterscheidet sich die Übergewichtsprävalenz je nach Verhaltensmuster signifikant.

Die ähnlichen Clusterlösungen unterstützen die Annahme, dass stabile typische Gesundheitsverhaltensmuster bei deutschen Jugendlichen existieren, was die Auswahl von homogenen Zielgruppen für Lebensstilinterventionen erleichtert. Die Unterschiede zwischen Jungen und Mädchen verweisen darauf, dass Gesundheitsförderprogramme geschlechtsabhängig unterschiedliche Schwerpunkte verfolgen sollten.