The SiaABC threonine phosphorylation pathway controls biofilm formation in response to carbon availability in Pseudomonas aeruginosa
2020, Poh, Wee-Han, Lin, Jianqing, Colley, Brendan, Müller, Nicolai, Goh, Boon Chong, Schleheck, David, Marquardt, Andreas, Lescar, Julien, Rice, Scott A., Klebensberger, Janosch
The critical role of bacterial biofilms in chronic human infections calls for novel anti-biofilm strategies targeting the regulation of biofilm development. However, the regulation of biofilm development is very complex and can include multiple, highly interconnected signal transduction/response pathways, which are incompletely understood. We demonstrated previously that in the opportunistic, human pathogen P. aeruginosa, the PP2C-like protein phosphatase SiaA and the di-guanylate cyclase SiaD control the formation of macroscopic cellular aggregates, a type of suspended biofilms, in response to surfactant stress. In this study, we demonstrate that the SiaABC proteins represent a signal response pathway that functions through a partner switch mechanism to control biofilm formation. We also demonstrate that SiaABCD functionality is dependent on carbon substrate availability for a variety of substrates, and that upon carbon starvation, SiaB mutants show impaired dispersal, in particular with the primary fermentation product ethanol. This suggests that carbon availability is at least one of the key environmental cues integrated by the SiaABCD system. Further, our biochemical, physiological and crystallographic data reveals that the phosphatase SiaA and its kinase counterpart SiaB balance the phosphorylation status of their target protein SiaC at threonine 68 (T68). Crystallographic analysis of the SiaA-PP2C domain shows that SiaA is present as a dimer. Dynamic modelling of SiaA with SiaC suggested that SiaA interacts strongly with phosphorylated SiaC and dissociates rapidly upon dephosphorylation of SiaC. Further, we show that the known phosphatase inhibitor fumonisin inhibits SiaA mediated phosphatase activity in vitro. In conclusion, the present work improves our understanding of how P. aeuruginosa integrates specific environmental conditions, such as carbon availability and surfactant stress, to regulate cellular aggregation and biofilm formation. With the biochemical and structural characterization of SiaA, initial data on the catalytic inhibition of SiaA, and the interaction between SiaA and SiaC, our study identifies promising targets for the development of biofilm-interference drugs to combat infections of this aggressive opportunistic pathogen.
Protein expression profile of HT-29 human colon cancer cells after treatment with a cytotoxic daunorubicin-GnRH-III derivative bioconjugate
2014, Schreier, Verena Natalie, Pethő, Lilla, Orbán, Erika, Marquardt, Andreas, Petre, Brindusa Alina, Mező, Gábor, Manea, Marilena
Targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic agents is a new approach for the treatment of cancer, which provides increased selectivity and decreased systemic toxicity. We have recently developed a promising drug delivery system, in which the anticancer drug daunorubicin (Dau) was attached via oxime bond to a gonadotropin-releasing hormone-III (GnRH-III) derivative used as a targeting moiety (Glp-His-Trp-Lys(Ac)-His-Asp-Trp-Lys(Dau = Aoa)-Pro-Gly-NH2; Glp = pyroglutamic acid, Ac = acetyl; Aoa = aminooxyacetyl). This bioconjugate exerted in vitro cytostatic/cytotoxic effect on human breast, prostate and colon cancer cells, as well as significant in vivo tumor growth inhibitory effect on colon carcinoma bearing mice. In our previous studies, H-Lys(Dau = Aoa)-OH was identified as the smallest metabolite produced in the presence of rat liver lysosomal homogenate, which was able to bind to DNA in vitro. To get a deeper insight into the mechanism of action of the bioconjugate, changes in the protein expression profile of HT-29 human colon cancer cells after treatment with the bioconjugate or free daunorubicin were investigated by mass spectrometry-based proteomics. Our results indicate that several metabolism-related proteins, molecular chaperons and proteins involved in signaling are differently expressed after targeted chemotherapeutic treatment, leading to the conclusion that the bioconjugate exerts its cytotoxic action by interfering with multiple intracellular processes.
GnRH-III based multifunctional drug delivery systems containing daunorubicin and methotrexate
2012-06, Leurs, Ulrike, Lajkó, Eszter, Mező, Gábor, Orbán, Erika, Öhlschläger, Peter, Marquardt, Andreas, Kőhidai, László, Manea, Marilena
Here we report on the design, synthesis and biochemical characterization of multifunctional bioconjugates containing two chemotherapeutic agents, daunorubicin and methotrexate, coupled to the GnRH-III decapeptide, which served as a targeting moiety. This represents a possible approach to increase the receptor mediated tumor targeting and consequently the cytostatic effect of anticancer drug-peptide bioconjugates. The multifunctional bioconjugates were prepared according to two drug design approaches recently developed by our group. Both bifunctional GnRH-III derivatives, [(4)Lys]-GnRH-III (Glp-His-Trp-Lys-His-Asp-Trp-Lys-Pro-Gly-NH(2)) and [(8)Lys(Lys)]-GnRH-III (Glp-His-Trp-Ser-His-Asp-Trp-Lys(Lys)-Pro-Gly-NH(2)), contain two free amino groups suitable for the attachment of two anticancer drugs, such as methotrexate and daunorubicin. The drugs were chosen with respect to their different mechanisms of action, with the goal of increasing the antitumor effect of the bioconjugates. The in vitro cytostatic effect of the bioconjugates was determined on MCF-7 human breast, HT-29 human colon and LNCaP human prostate cancer cells by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Their in vitro stability/degradation in human serum and in the presence of rat liver lysosomal homogenate was investigated by liquid chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry. The influence of the multifunctional bioconjugates on the cell adhesion and cell proliferation was studied on Mono Mac 6 human leukemic monocytes. It was found that (1) all synthesized bioconjugates had in vitro cytostatic effect; (2) they were stable in human serum for at least 24 h; (3) they were hydrolyzed in the presence of lysosomal homogenate and (4) they exerted a moderate cell-cell adhesion inducing effect. These results demonstrate that multifunctional bioconjugates containing two different anticancer drugs attached to the same GnRH-III targeting moiety could be successfully prepared and resulted in higher in vitro cytostatic effect than the monofunctional bioconjugates containing either methotrexate or daunorubicin, in particular on HT-29 human colon cancer cells.
Differentiation of compact and extended conformations of di-ubiquitin conjugates with lysine-specific isopeptide linkages by ion mobility-mass spectrometry
2011-08, Jung, Ji Eun, Pierson, Nicholas A., Marquardt, Andreas, Scheffner, Martin, Przybylski, Michael, Clemmer, David E.
Modification of ubiquitin, a key cellular regulatory polypeptide of 76 amino acids, to polyubiquitin conjugates by lysine-specific isopeptide linkage at one of its seven lysine residues has been recognized as a central pathway determining its biochemical properties and cellular functions. Structural details and differences of distinct lysine-isopeptidyl ubiquitin conjugates that reflect their different functions and reactivities, however, are only partially understood. Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) combined with mass spectrometry (MS) has recently emerged as a powerful tool for probing conformations and topology involved in protein interactions by an electric field-driven separation of polypeptide ions through a drift gas. Here we report the conformational characterization and differentiation of Lys63- and Lys48-linked ubiquitin conjugates by IMS-MS. Lys63- and Lys48-linked di-ubiquitin conjugates were prepared by recombinant bacterial expression and by chemical synthesis using a specific chemical ligation strategy, and characterized by high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and molecular modeling. IMS-MS was found to be an effective tool for the identification of structural differences of ubiquitin complexes in the gas phase. The comparison of collision cross-sections of Lys63- and Lys48-linked di-ubiquitin conjugates showed a more elongated conformation of Lys63-linked di-ubiquitin. In contrast, the Lys48-linked di-ubiquitin conjugate showed a more compact conformation. The IMS-MS results are consistent with published structural data and a comparative molecular modeling study of the Lys63- and Lys48-linked conjugates. The results presented here suggest IMS techniques can provide information that complements MS measurements in differentiating higher-order polyubiquitins and other isomeric protein linkages.
Analysis of the Proteolytic Processing of ABCA3 : Identification of Cleavage Site and Involved Proteases
2016-03-31, Hofmann, Nicole, Galetskiy, Dmitry, Rauch, Daniela, Wittmann, Thomas, Marquardt, Andreas, Griese, Matthias, Zarbock, Ralf
ABCA3 is a lipid transporter in the limiting membrane of lamellar bodies in alveolar type II cells. Mutations in the ABCA3 gene cause respiratory distress syndrome in new-borns and childhood interstitial lung disease. ABCA3 is N-terminally cleaved by an as yet unknown protease, a process believed to regulate ABCA3 activity.
The exact site where ABCA3 is cleaved was localized using mass spectrometry (MS). Proteases involved in ABCA3 processing were identified using small molecule inhibitors and siRNA mediated gene knockdown. Results were verified by in vitro digestion of a synthetic peptide substrate mimicking ABCA3’s cleavage region, followed by MS analysis.
We found that cleavage of ABCA3 occurs after Lys174 which is located in the proteins’ first luminal loop. Inhibition of cathepsin L and, to a lesser extent, cathepsin B resulted in attenuation of ABCA3 cleavage. Both enzymes showed activity against the ABCA3 peptide in vitro with cathepsin L being more active.
We show here that, like some other proteins of the lysosomal membrane, ABCA3 is a substrate of cathepsin L. Therefore, cathepsin L may represent a potential target to therapeutically influence ABCA3 activity in ABCA3-associated lung disease.
Synthesis, enzymatic stability and in vitro cytostatic effect of Daunorubicin-GnRH-III derivative dimers
2013-04-01, Schreier, Verena Natalie, Mező, Gábor, Orbán, Erika, Dürr, Claudia, Marquardt, Andreas, Manea, Marilena
Bioconjugates containing chemotherapeutic agents attached to peptide hormones, such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), are developed as drug delivery systems for targeted cancer chemotherapy. We report here the synthesis and biochemical characterization of disulfide bond-linked dimeric bioconjugates in which daunorubicin was coupled via an oxime linkage to aminooxyacetylated GnRH-III ([Glp-His-Trp-Ser-His-Asp-Trp-Lys(Dau=Aoa-Cys)-Pro-Gly-NH2]2; where Glp is pyroglutamic acid and Aoa is aminooxyacetyl) and its derivatives modified in position four by N-Me-Ser and Lys(Ac). The in vitro stability/degradation of the bioconjugates was determined in human serum, as well as in the presence of rat liver lysosomal homogenate and digestive enzymes. All compounds were stable at least for 24h in human serum and in the presence of pepsin and trypsin, while they were degraded by lysosomal enzymes. The daunorubicin-GnRH-III derivative dimers were partly digested by α-chymotrypsin; however, they had increased stability compared to the corresponding monomers, making them potential candidates for oral administration. The in vitro cytostatic effect of the compounds was determined on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. All daunorubicin-GnRH-III derivative dimers exerted slightly increased in vitro cytostatic effect (IC50 values in low μM range) than the corresponding monomeric bioconjugates.
Design, synthesis, in vitro stability and cytostatic effect of multifunctional anticancer drug-bioconjugates containing GnRH-III as a targeting moiety
2012, Leurs, Ulrike, Mező, Gábor, Orbán, Erika, Öhlschläger, Peter, Marquardt, Andreas, Manea, Marilena
Bioconjugates containing the GnRH-III hormone decapeptide as a targeting moiety are able to deliver chemotherapeutic agents specifically to cancer cells expressing GnRH receptors, thereby increasing their local efficacy while limiting the peripheral toxicity. However, the number of GnRH receptors on cancer cells is limited and they desensitize under continuous hormone treatment. A possible approach to increase the receptor mediated tumor targeting and consequently the cytostatic effect of the bioconjugates would be the attachment of more than one chemotherapeutic agent to one GnRH-III molecule.
Here we report on the design, synthesis and biochemical characterization of multifunctional bioconjugates containing GnRH-III as a targeting moiety and daunorubicin as a chemotherapeutic agent. Two different drug design approaches were pursued. The first one was based on the bifunctional [4Lys]-GnRH-III (Glp-His-Trp-Lys-His-Asp-Trp-Lys-Pro-Gly-NH2) containing two lysine residues in positions 4 and 8, whose ε-amino groups were used for the coupling of daunorubicin. In the second drug design, the native GnRH-III (Glp-His-Trp-Ser-His-Asp-Trp-Lys-Pro-Gly-NH2) was used as a scaffold; an additional lysine residue was coupled to the ε-amino group of 8Lys in order to generate two free amino groups available for conjugation of daunorubicin. The in vitro stability/degradation of all synthesized compounds was investigated in human serum, as well as in the presence of rat liver lysosomal homogenate. Their cellular uptake was determined on human breast cancer cells and the cytostatic effect was evaluated on human breast, colon and prostate cancer cell lines.
Compared to a monofunctional compound, both drug design approaches resulted in multifunctional bioconjugates with increased cytostatic effect.
Modification of daunorubicin-GnRH-III bioconjugates with oligoethylene glycol derivatives to improve solubility and bioavailability for targeted cancer chemotherapy
2015, Hegedüs, Rózsa, Pauschert, Aline, Orbán, Erika, Szabó, Ildikó, Andreu, David, Marquardt, Andreas, Mező, Gábor, Manea, Marilena
Daunorubicin-GnRH-III bioconjugates have recently been developed as drug delivery systems with potential applications in targeted cancer chemotherapy. In order to improve their biochemical properties, several strategies have been pursued: (1) incorporation of an enzymatic cleavable spacer between the anticancer drug and the peptide-based targeting moiety, (2) peptide modification by short chain fatty acids or (3) attachment of two anticancer drugs to the same GnRH-III derivative. Although these modifications led to more potent bioconjugates, a decrease in their solubility was observed. Here we report on the design, synthesis and biochemical characterization of daunorubicin-GnRH-III bioconjugates with increased solubility, which could be achieved by incorporating oligoethylene glycol-based spacers in their structure. First, we have evaluated the effect of an oligoethylene glycol-based spacer on the solubility, enzymatic stability/degradation, cellular uptake and in vitro cytostatic effect of a bioconjugate containing only one daunorubicin attached through a GFLG tetrapeptide spacer to the GnRH-III targeting moiety. Thereafter, more complex compounds containing two copies of daunorubicin, GFLG spacers as well as Lys(nBu) in position 4 of GnRH-III were synthesized and biochemically characterized. Our results indicated that all synthesized oligoethylene glycol-containing bioconjugates had higher solubility in cell culture medium than the unmodified analogs. They were degraded in the presence of rat liver lysosomal homogenate leading to the formation of small drug containing metabolites. In the case of bioconjugates containing two copies of daunorubicin, the incorporation of oligoethylene glycol-based spacers led to increased in vitro cytostatic effect on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.
The NOX1/4 inhibitor GKT136901 as selective and direct scavenger of peroxynitrite
2013, Schildknecht, Stefan, Weber, Annemarie, Gerding, Hanne R., Pape, Regina, Robotta, Marta, Drescher, Malte, Marquardt, Andreas, Daiber, Andreas, Ferger, Boris, Leist, Marcel
NADPH oxidases (NOX), catalyzing the reduction of molecular oxygen to form the superoxide radical anion (•O2 -) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), are involved in several pathological conditions, such as stroke, diabetes, atherosclerosis, but also in chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, or multiple sclerosis. GKT136901 is a novel NOX-1/4 inhibitor with potential application in the areas of diabetic nephropathy, stroke, or neurodegeneration. In the present study, we investigated additional pharmacological activities of the compound with respect to direct free radical scavenging. GKT136901 did not interact with nitric oxide (•NO), •O2 -, or hydroxyl radicals (•OH), but it acted as selective scavenger of peroxynitrite (PON) already in the submicromolar concentration range. Alpha synuclein (ASYN) is a protein involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and a known target for PON-dependent tyrosine nitration. Submicromolar concentrations of GKT136901 prevented tyrosine nitration and di-tyrosine-dependent dimer formation of ASYN by PON as indicated by Western blot and mass spectrometric analysis. GKT136901 itself was degraded when exposed to PON. In a human neuronal cell model, GKT136901 prevented both the depletion of reduced intracellular glutathione, and the degeneration of neurites when present during PON treatment of the cells. When GKT136901 was applied after PON treatment, no protective effect was observed, thus excluding an impact of GKT136901 on cellular death/survival pathways. In summary, selective scavenging of PON is an additional pharmacological property of the NOX-1/4 inhibitor GKT136901, and this may add to the efficiency of the drug in several disease models.
A new daunomycin–peptide conjugate : synthesis, characterization and the effect on the protein expression profile of HL-60 cells in vitro
2011-10-19, Orbán, Erika, Manea, Marilena, Marquardt, Andreas, Bánóczi, Zoltán, Csı́k, Gabriella, Fellinger, Erzsébet, Bősze, Szilvia, Hudecz, Ferenc
Daunomycin (Dau) is a DNA-binding antineoplastic agent in the treatment of various types of cancer, such as osteosarcomas and acute myeloid leukemia. One approach to improve its selectivity and to decrease the side effects is the conjugation of Dau with oligopeptide carriers, which might alter the drug uptake and intracellular fate. Here, we report on the synthesis, characterization, and in vitro biological properties of a novel conjugate in which Dau is attached, via an oxime bond, to one of the cancer specific small peptides (LTVSPWY) selected from a random phage peptide library. The in vitro cytostatic effect and cellular uptake of Dau═Aoa-LTVSPWY-NH2 conjugate were studied on various human cancer cell lines expressing different levels of ErbB2 receptor which could be targeted by the peptide. We found that the new daunomycin–peptide conjugate is highly cytostatic and could be taken up efficiently by the human cancer cells studied. However, the conjugate was less effective than the free drug itself. RP-HPLC data indicate that the conjugate is stable at least for 24 h in the pH 2.5–7.0 range of buffers, as well as in cell culture medium. The conjugate in the presence of rat liver lysosomal homogenate, as indicated by LC-MS analysis, could be degraded. The smallest, Dau-containing metabolite (Dau═Aoa-Leu-OH) identified and prepared expresses DNA-binding ability. In order to get insight on the potential mechanism of action, we compared the protein expression profile of HL-60 human leukemia cells after treatment with the free and peptide conjugated daunomycin. Proteomic analysis suggests that the expression of several proteins has been altered. This includes three proteins, whose expression was lower (tubulin β chain) or markedly higher (proliferating cell nuclear antigen and protein kinase C inhibitor protein 1) after administration of cells with Dau-conjugate vs free drug.