Continuum Crystallization Model Derived from Pharmaceutical Crystallization Mechanisms
2021, Tsarfati, Yael, Biran, Idan, Wiedenbeck, Eduard, Houben, Lothar, Cölfen, Helmut, Rybtchinski, Boris
The crystallization mechanisms of organic molecules in solution are not well-understood. The mechanistic scenarios where crystalline order evolves directly from the molecularly dissolved state (“classical”) and from initially formed amorphous intermediates (“nonclassical”) are suggested and debated. Here, we studied crystallization mechanisms of two widely used analgesics, ibuprofen (IbuH) and etoricoxib (ETO), using direct cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) imaging. In the IbuH case, parallel crystallization pathways involved diverse phases of high and low density, in which the instantaneous formation of final crystalline order was observed. ETO crystallization started from well-defined round-shaped amorphous intermediates that gradually evolved into crystals. This mechanistic diversity is rationalized by introducing a continuum crystallization paradigm: order evolution depends on ordering in the initially formed intermediates and efficiency of molecular rearrangements within them, and there is a continuum of states related to the initial order and rearrangement rates. This model provides a unified view of crystallization mechanisms, encompassing classical and nonclassical pictures.
Potentiometric Titration Method for the Determination of Solubility Limits and pKa Values of Weak Organic Acids in Water
2020-07-21, Wiedenbeck, Eduard, Gebauer, Denis, Cölfen, Helmut
The determination of solubility limits of compounds in water is unprecise and relies on certain prerequisites such as UV-Vis absorption activity. In this study we designed an experimental approach based on potentiometric titrations to determine solubility limits of various organic compounds by exploiting their pH-active carboxylic acid groups. By applying the law of mass action, utilizing a double-dosing method ensuring a constant compound concentration, it is possible to determine the intrinsic solubility limits, which are independent of the pH value. The derived equations enable the precise and fast determination of intrinsic solubility limits of organic compounds in aqueous solutions within 2 - 4 hours. Moreover, it is shown how the pKa value can be determined based on titrations carried out at two different compound concentrations.
Chemical trigger toward phase separation in the aqueous Al(III) system revealed
2020-06, Lukić, Miodrag J., Wiedenbeck, Eduard, Reiner, Holger, Gebauer, Denis
Although Al(III) hydrolysis, condensation, and nucleation play pivotal roles in the synthesis of Al-based compounds and determine their chemical behavior, we still lack experimental evidence regarding the chemistry of nucleation from solution. Here, by combining advanced titration assays, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), and 27Al–nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we show that highly dynamic solute prenucleation clusters (PNCs) are fundamental precursors of nanosolid formation. Chemical changes from olation to oxolation bridging within PNCs rely on the formation of tetrahedral AlO4 in solution and trigger phase separation at low driving force (supersaturation). This does not include the formation of Keggin-Al13 ions, at least during the earliest stages. The PNC pathway of the formation of Al(III) (oxy)(hydr)oxides offers new possibilities toward the development of strategies for controlling the entire crystallization process.