Mapping 13C hyperfine couplings and exchange interactions in short-lived charge separated states of rigid donor–bridge–acceptor dyads
2021-12-14, Zhukov, Ivan, Fishman, Natalya, Kiryutin, Alexey, Lukzen, Nikita, Steiner, Ulrich, Vieth, Hans-Martin, Schäfer, Julian, Lambert, Christoph, Yurkovskaya, Alexandra
A detailed experimental study on reversible photo-induced intramolecular charge separation is presented based on nuclear magnetic resonance detection of chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization. From variation of such polarization with the external magnetic field, the coupling constants of isotropic and anisotropic hyperfine interactions at individual 13C sites are measured in the short-lived charge separated state of dyad molecules composed of donor–bridge–acceptor parts. The objects of study were rigid donor–bridge–acceptor dyads, consisting of triarylamine as a donor, naphthalene diimide as an acceptor, and a meta-conjugated diethynylbenzene fragment as a bridge. By systematic variation of side groups in the bridging moiety, their influence on the electron withdrawing strength is traced. In combination with similar data for the 1H positions obtained previously for the same compounds [I. Zhukov et al., J. Chem. Phys. 152, 014203 (2020)], our results provide a reliable basis for the determination of the spin density distribution in the charge separated state of such dyads.
Giant magnetic field effects in donor–acceptor triads : On the charge separation and recombination dynamics in triarylamine–naphthalenediimide triads with bis-diyprrinato-palladium(II), porphodimethenato-palladium(II), and palladium(II)–porphyrin photosensitizers
2020-08-07, Riese, Stefan, Brand, Jessica S., Mims, David, Holzapfel, Marco, Lukzen, Nikita N., Steiner, Ulrich, Lambert, Christoph
A series of triads consisting of a triarylamine donor, a naphthalenediimide acceptor, and a palladium photosensitizer bridge was investigated for the photoinduced electron transfer processes and the spin chemistry involved. In this series, the ligand in the palladium photosensitizer was varied from bis-dipyrrinato to porphodimethenato and to a porphyrin. With the porphyrin photosensitizer, no charge separated state could be reached. This is caused by the direct relaxation of the excited photosensitizer to the ground state by intersystem crossing. The bis-dipyrrinato-palladium photosensitizer gave only a little yield (7%) of the charge separated state, which is due to the population of a metal centered triplet state and a concomitant geometrical rearrangement to a disphenoidal coordination sphere. This state relaxes rapidly to the ground state. In contrast, in the porphodimethenato-palladium triads, a long lived (μs to ms) charge separated state could be generated in high quantum yields (66%–74%) because, here, the population of a triplet metal centered state is inhibited by geometrical constraints. The magnetic field dependent transient absorption measurement of one of the porphodimethenato triads revealed a giant magnetic field effect by a factor of 26 on the signal amplitude of the charge separated state. This is the consequence of a magnetic field dependent triplet–singlet interconversion that inhibits the fast decay of the charge separated triplet state through the singlet recombination channel. A systematic comparative analysis of the spin-dependent kinetics in terms of three classical and one fully quantum theoretical methods is provided, shedding light on the pros and cons of each of them.
Fine tuning of electron transfer and spin chemistry parameters in triarylamine–bridge–naphthalene diimide dyads by bridge substituents
2018, Schäfer, Julian, Holzapfel, Marco, Schmiedel, Alexander, Steiner, Ulrich, Lambert, Christoph
The photoinduced charge separation and charge recombination in a set of four molecular dyads consisting of a triarylamine donor and a naphthalene diimide acceptor were investigated by time resolved transient absorption spectroscopy with fs and ns time resolution. In these dyads the donor and acceptor are bridged by a meta-conjugated diethynylbenzene bridge whose electronic nature was tuned by small electron donating (OMe, Me) or electron withdrawing (Cl, CN) substituents. While the formation of the transient charge separated states is complete within tens of ps, charge recombination is biphasic with a shorter component of several hundred ns and a longer component of several microseconds. This behaviour could be rationalized by assuming an equilibrium of singlet and triplet charge separated states. Magnetic field dependent measurements showed a strong influence on the biphasic decay kinetics and also a pronounced level crossing effect in the magnetic field affected reaction yield (MARY) spectra caused by a significant exchange coupling. An analysis of the observed kinetics using classical kinetic rate equations yields rate constants for charge separation and charge recombination as well as the exchange interaction splitting in the radical ion pair, all of them showing a delicate dependence on the bridge substituents.
Readout of spin quantum beats in a charge-separated radical pair by pump-push spectroscopy
2021, Mims, David, Herpich, Jonathan, Lukzen, Nikita N., Steiner, Ulrich, Lambert, Christoph
Spin quantum beats prove the quantum nature of reactions involving radical pairs, the key species of spin chemistry. However, such quantum beats remain hidden to transient absorption–based optical observation because the spin hardly affects the absorption properties of the radical pairs. We succeed in demonstrating such quantum beats in the photoinduced charge-separated state (CSS) of an electron donor–acceptor dyad by using two laser pulses—one for pumping the sample and another one, with variable delay, for further exciting the CSS to a higher electronic state, wherein ultrafast recombination to distinct, optically detectable products of singlet or triplet multiplicity occurs. This represents a spin quantum measurement of the spin state of the CSS at the time instant of the second (push) pulse.
Spin-chemical effects on intramolecular photoinduced charge transfer reactions in bisphenanthroline copper(i)-viologen dyad assemblies
2020-06-03, Lazorski, Megan S., Schapiro, Igor, Gaddie, Ross S., Lehnig, Ammon P., Atanasov, Mihail, Neese, Frank, Steiner, Ulrich, Elliott, C. Michael
Nanoviscosity effect on the spin chemistry of an electron donor/Pt-complex /electron acceptor triad : classical and quantum kinetics interpretation
2019-10-02, Riese, Stefan, Mungenast, Lena, Schmiedel, Alexander, Holzapfel, Marco, Lukzen, Nikita N., Steiner, Ulrich, Lambert, Christoph
The magnetic-field dependent charge recombination kinetics upon ns-laser flash photolysis of a novel triarylamine/cyclometalated platinum complex/napthalenediimide triad (DPtA) have been measured in tetrahydrofuran (THF) and polytetrahydrofuran (pTHF) to study the spinchemical effect of a large increase of the macroviscosity of the solvent by a factor of about 1000. The magnetic-field dependence of the decay kinetics of the charge separated state has been accurately reproduced by a classical kinetic model, wherein the rate constants of transitions between spin substates of different Zeeman energy are represented by a single magnetic-field dependent rate constant k±. In THF, the magnetic-field dependence ofk± is given by a double Lorentzian function which, in a double log plot, shows two characteristic steps that can be consistently assigned to the magnetic field inhibition of the coherent and incoherent i.e. relaxational spin mixing mechanism. In pTHF, the magnetic field effect on k± is a single step function decreasing to its limiting value at about 5 times lower fields than in THF. As shown by a quantum theoretical simulation, in this solvent coherent and incoherent processes are contributing equally at all fields. The nanoviscosity of pTHF appears to be much smaller than its macroviscosity.
Rapid glycoconjugation with glycosyl amines
2021, Rapp, Mareike A., Baudendistel, Oliver R., Steiner, Ulrich, Wittmann, Valentin
Conjugation of unprotected carbohydrates to surfaces or probes by chemoselective ligation reactions is indispensable for the elucidation of their numerous biological functions. In particular, the reaction with oxyamines leading to the formation of carbohydrate oximes which are in equilibrium with cyclic N-glycosides (oxyamine ligation) has an enormous impact in the field. Although highly chemoselective, the reaction is rather slow. Here, we report that the oxyamine ligation is significantly accelerated without the need for a catalyst when starting with glycosyl amines. Reaction rates are increased up to 500-fold compared to the reaction of the reducing carbohydrate. For comparison, aniline-catalyzed oxyamine ligation is only increased 3.8-fold under the same conditions. Glycosyl amines from mono- and oligosaccharides are easily accessible from reducing carbohydrates via the corresponding azides by using Shoda's reagent (2-chloro-1,3-dimethylimidazolinium chloride, DMC) and subsequent reduction. Furthermore, glycosyl amines are readily obtained by enzymatic release from N-glycoproteins making the method suited for glycomic analysis of these glycoconjugates which we demonstrate employing RNase B. Oxyamine ligation of glycosyl amines can be carried out at close to neutral conditions which makes the procedure especially valuable for acid-sensitive oligosaccharides.
Positive electronic exchange interaction and predominance of minor triplet channel in CIDNP formation in short lived charge separated states of D-X-A dyads
2020-01-07, Zhukov, Ivan, Fishman, Natalya, Kiryutin, Alexey, Lukzen, Nikita, Panov, Mikhail, Steiner, Ulrich, Vieth, Hans-Martin, Schäfer, Julian, Lambert, Christoph, Yurkovskaya, Alexandra
Previous transient absorption measurements using the magnetically affected reaction yield (MARY) technique for a series of rigidly linked electron donor/electron acceptor dyads (D-X-A) consisting of a triarylamine donor, a naphthalene diimide acceptor, and a meta-conjugated diethynylbenzene unit as a bridge had revealed the presence of electronic exchange interaction, J, in the photoexcited charge separated (CS) state. Here, we present results obtained by photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (photo-CIDNP) that allows for determining the sign of J. By variation of the magnetic field from 1 mT to 9.4 T, pronounced absorptive maxima of CIDNP were detected for more than 20 1H nuclei disregarding the sign of their hyperfine coupling constants in the transient charge separated state, with positions of maxima close to those found by the MARY technique. Quantitative comparison of the observed CIDNP signals for various D-X-A dyads reveals an increase in the CIDNP enhancement factor with increasing population of the triplet state determined by MARY spectroscopy at zero magnetic field. For CIDNP of the methyl groups of the TAA donor dyads, we found in all studies a good linear dependence between the CIDNP signal amplitude and the initial population of the CS triplet state. The linear relationship together with the absorptive CIDNP allows us to conclude that (i) the sign of the electronic exchange interaction Jex is positive, (ii) CIDNP is formed predominantly in the vicinity of level anticrossing between the T+ and S electronic levels, and (iii) coherent triplet-singlet transitions are induced by hyperfine interaction and accompanied by simultaneous electron and nuclear spin flip, | | T + β⟩→| | Sα⟩ T+β→Sα .
How Small Heterocycles Make a Reaction Network of Amino Acids and Nucleotides Efficient in Water
2019-09-09, Tremmel, Peter, Griesser, Helmut, Steiner, Ulrich, Richert, Clemens
Organisms use enzymes to ensure a flow of substrates through biosynthetic pathways. How the earliest form of life established biosynthetic networks and prevented hydrolysis of intermediates without enzymes is unclear. Organocatalysts may have played the role of enzymes. Quantitative analysis of reactions of adenosine 5’‐monophosphate and glycine that produce peptides, pyrophosphates, and RNA chains reveals that organocapture by heterocycles gives hydrolytically stabilized intermediates with balanced reactivity. We determined rate constants for 20 reactions in aqueous solutions containing a carbodiimide and measured product formation with cyanamide as a condensing agent. Organocapture favors reactions that are kinetically slow but productive, and networks, over single transformations. Heterocycles can increase the metabolic efficiency more than two‐fold, with up to 0.6 useful bonds per fuel molecule spent, boosting the efficiency of life‐like reaction systems in the absence of enzymes.