Associations of circulating GDF15 with combined cognitive frailty and depression in older adults of the MARK-AGE study
2023-09-16, Kochlik, Bastian, Herpich, Catrin, Moreno-Villanueva, Maria, Klaus, Susanne, Müller-Werdan, Ursula, Weinberger, Birgit, Fiegl, Simone, Toussaint, Olivier, Debacq-Chainiaux, Florence, Bürkle, Alexander
Abstract Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF15) might be involved in the development of cognitive frailty and depression. Therefore, we evaluated cross-sectional associations of plasma GDF15 with combined cognitive-frailty-and-depression in older (i.e. ≥ 55 years) and younger adults of the MARK-AGE study. In the present work, samples and data of MARK-AGE (“European study to establish bioMARKers of human AGEing“) participants ( N = 2736) were analyzed. Cognitive frailty was determined by the global cognitive functioning score (GCF) and depression by the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS score). Adults were classified into three groups: (I) neither-cognitive-frailty-nor-depression, (II) either-cognitive-frailty-or-depression or (III) both-cognitive-frailty-and-depression. Cross-sectional associations were determined by unadjusted and by age, BMI, sex, comorbidities and hsCRP-adjusted linear and logistic regression analyses. Cognitive frailty, depression, age and GDF15 were significantly related within the whole study sample. High GDF15 levels were significantly associated with both-cognitive-frailty-and-depression (adjusted β = 0.177 [0.044 – 0.310], p = 0.009), and with low GCF scores and high SDS scores. High GDF15 concentrations and quartiles were significantly associated with higher odds to have both-cognitive-frailty-and-depression (adjusted odds ratio = 2.353 [1.267 – 4.372], p = 0.007; and adjusted odds ratio = 1.414 [1.025 – 1.951], p = 0.035, respectively) independent of age, BMI, sex, comorbidities and hsCRP. These associations remained significant when evaluating older adults. We conclude that plasma GDF15 concentrations are significantly associated with combined cognitive-frailty-and-depression status and, with cognitive frailty and depressive symptoms separately in old as well as young community-dwelling adults.
PARP1 and XRCC1 exhibit a reciprocal relationship in genotoxic stress response
2023, Reber, Julia M., Božić-Petković, Jovana, Lippmann, Michelle, Mazzardo, Marvin, Dilger, Asisa, Warmers, Rebecca, Bürkle, Alexander, Mangerich, Aswin
PARP1 (aka ARTD1) acts as a prime sensor of cellular genotoxic stress response. PARP1 detects DNA strand breaks and subsequently catalyzes the formation of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR), which leads to the recruitment of the scaffold protein XRCC1 during base excision and single strand break repair and the assembly of multi-protein complexes to promote DNA repair. Here, we reveal that the recruitment of either protein to sites of DNA damage is impeded in the absence of the other, indicating a strong reciprocal relationship between the two DNA repair factors during genotoxic stress response. We further analyzed several cellular and molecular endpoints in HeLa PARP1 KO, XRCC1 KO, and PARP1/XRCC1 double KO (DKO) cells after genotoxic treatments, i.e., PARylation response, NAD+ levels, clonogenic survival, cell cycle progression, cell death, and DNA repair. The analysis of NAD+ levels and cytotoxicity after treatment with the topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin revealed a hypersensitivity phenotype of XRCC1 KO cells compared to PARP1 KO cells-an effect that could be rescued by the additional genetic deletion of PARP1 as well as by pharmacological PARP inhibition. Moreover, impaired repair of hydrogen peroxide and CPT-induced DNA damage in XRCC1 KO cells could be partially rescued by additional deletion of PARP1. Our results therefore highlight important reciprocal regulatory functions of XRCC1 and PARP1 during genotoxic stress response.
Association of Torquetenovirus viremia with physical frailty and cognitive impairment in three independent European cohorts
2023, Giacconi, Robertina, Laffon, Blanca, Costa, Solange, Teixeira-Gomes, Armanda, Maggi, Fabrizio, Macera, Lisa, Spezia, Pietro Giorgio, Piacenza, Francesco, Bürkle, Alexander, Moreno-Villanueva, Maria
Introduction: Immunosenescence and inflammaging have been implicated in the pathophysiology of frailty. Torquetenovirus (TTV), a single-stranded DNA anellovirus, the major component of the human blood virome, shows an increased replication rate with advancing age. An elevated TTV viremia has been associated with an impaired immune function and an increased risk of mortality in the older population. The objective of this study was to analyze the relation between TTV viremia, physical frailty and cognitive impairment Methods: TTV viremia was measured in 1131 nonfrail, 45 physically frail, and 113 cognitively impaired older adults recruited in the MARK-AGE study (overall mean age 64.7±5.9 years), then the results were checked in two other independent cohorts from Spain and Portugal, including 126 frail, 252 prefrail and 141 nonfrail individuals (overall mean age: 77.5±8.3 years). Results: TTV viremia ≥4log was associated with physical frailty (OR: 4.69; 95% CI: 2.06-10.67, p<0.0001) and cognitive impairment (OR: 3.49, 95% CI : 2.14-5.69, p<0.0001) in the MARK-AGE population. The association between TTV DNA load and frailty status was confirmed in the Spanish cohort, while a slight association with cognitive impairment was observed (OR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.000-1.773), only in the unadjusted model. No association between TTV load and frailty or cognitive impairment was found in the Portuguese sample, although a negative association between TTV viremia and MMSE score was observed in Spanish and Portuguese females. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate an association between TTV viremia and physical frailty, while the association with cognitive impairment was observed only in the younger population from the MARK-AGE study. Further research is necessary to clarify TTV's clinical relevance in the onset and progression of frailty and cognitive decline in older individuals.
Circulating cell-free DNA in health and disease : the relationship to health behaviours, ageing phenotypes and metabolomics
2022-07-21, Kananen, Laura, Hurme, Mikko, Bürkle, Alexander, Moreno-Villanueva, Maria, Bernhardt, Jürgen, Debacq-Chainiaux, Florence, Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix, Malavolta, Marco, Basso, Andrea, Piacenza, Francesco
Circulating cell-free DNA (cf-DNA) has emerged as a promising biomarker of ageing, tissue damage and cellular stress. However, less is known about health behaviours, ageing phenotypes and metabolic processes that lead to elevated cf-DNA levels. We sought to analyse the relationship of circulating cf-DNA level to age, sex, smoking, physical activity, vegetable consumption, ageing phenotypes (physical functioning, the number of diseases, frailty) and an extensive panel of biomarkers including blood and urine metabolites and inflammatory markers in three human cohorts (N = 5385; 17-82 years). The relationships were assessed using correlation statistics, and linear and penalised regressions (the Lasso), also stratified by sex.
cf-DNA levels were significantly higher in men than in women, and especially in middle-aged men and women who smoke, and in older more frail individuals. Correlation statistics of biomarker data showed that cf-DNA level was higher with elevated inflammation (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6), and higher levels of homocysteine, and proportion of red blood cells and lower levels of ascorbic acid. Inflammation (C-reactive protein, glycoprotein acetylation), amino acids (isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine), and ketogenesis (3-hydroxybutyrate) were included in the cf-DNA level-related biomarker profiles in at least two of the cohorts.
In conclusion, circulating cf-DNA level is different by sex, and related to health behaviour, health decline and metabolic processes common in health and disease. These results can inform future studies where epidemiological and biological pathways of cf-DNA are to be analysed in details, and for studies evaluating cf-DNA as a potential clinical marker.
Long-term human spaceflight and inflammaging : Does it promote aging?
2023-06, Capri, Miriam, Conte, Maria, Ciurca, Erika, Pirazzini, Chiara, Garagnani, Paolo, Santoro, Aurelia, Longo, Federica, Moreno-Villanueva, Maria, Gruber, Markus, Bürkle, Alexander
Spaceflight and its associated stressors, such as microgravity, radiation exposure, confinement, circadian derailment and disruptive workloads represent an unprecedented type of exposome that is entirely novel from an evolutionary stand point. Within this perspective, we aimed to review the effects of prolonged spaceflight on immune-neuroendocrine systems, brain and brain-gut axis, cardiovascular system and musculoskeletal apparatus, highlighting in particular the similarities with an accelerated aging process. In particular, spaceflight-induced muscle atrophy/sarcopenia and bone loss, vascular and metabolic changes, hyper and hypo reaction of innate and adaptive immune system appear to be modifications shared with the aging process. Most of these modifications are mediated by molecular events that include oxidative and mitochondrial stress, autophagy, DNA damage repair and telomere length alteration, among others, which directly or indirectly converge on the activation of an inflammatory response. According to the inflammaging theory of aging, such an inflammatory response could be a driver of an acceleration of the normal, physiological rate of aging and it is likely that all the systemic modifications in turn lead to an increase of inflammaging in a sort of vicious cycle. The most updated countermeasures to fight these modifications will be also discussed in the light of their possible application not only for astronauts’ benefit, but also for older adults on the ground.
Bacterial DNAemia in older subjects and nonagenarian offspring and association with redox biomarkers : results from MARK-AGE Study
2023, Giacconi, Robertina, D'Aquila, Patrizia, Malavolta, Marco, Piacenza, Francesco, Bürkle, Alexander, Moreno-Villanueva, Maria, Dollé, Martijn E T, Jansen, Eugène, Bellizzi, Dina, Provinciali, Mauro
Aging and age-related diseases have been linked to microbial dysbiosis with changes in blood bacterial DNA concentration. This condition may promote chronic low-grade inflammation, which can be further aggravated by antioxidant nutrient deficiency. Low plasma carotenoids are associated with an increased risk of inflammation and cellular damage and predict mortality. However, no evidence is yet available on the relationship between antioxidants and the blood bacterial DNA (BB-DNA). Therefore, this study aimed to compare BB-DNA from (i) GO (nonagenarian offspring), (ii) age matched controls [(Randomly recruited Age-Stratified Individuals from the General population (RASIG)] and (iii) Spouses of GO (SGO) recruited in the MARK-AGE project, as well as to investigate the association between BB-DNA, behavior habits, Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), leucocyte subsets, and the circulating levels of some antioxidants and oxidative stress markers.
BB-DNA was higher in RASIG than GO and SGO, while GO and SGO participants showed similar values. BB-DNA increased in smokers and in males with CCI≥2 compared to those with CCI≤1 within RASIG. Moreover, BB-DNA was positively associated with lymphocyte, neutrophil and monocyte counts, but not with self-reported dietary habits. Higher quartiles of BB-DNA were associated with low lutein and zeaxanthin and elevated malondialdehyde plasma concentrations in RASIG. BB-DNA was also positively correlated with nitric oxide levels.
Herein, we provide evidence of a reduced BB-DNA in individuals from long-living families and their spouses, suggesting a decreased microbial dysbiosis and bacterial systemic translocation. BB-DNA was also associated with smoking, CCI, leukocyte subsets and some redox biomarkers in older subjects.
Expression of DNA repair genes and its relevance for DNA repair in peripheral immune cells of patients with posttraumatic stress disorder
2022-11-04, Behnke, Alexander, Mack, Matthias, Fieres, Judy, Christmann, Markus, Bürkle, Alexander, Moreno-Villanueva, Maria, Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) involves elevated levels of cellular oxidative stress which jeopardizes the integrity of essential cell compartments. Previously, we demonstrated higher levels of DNA lesions in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in PTSD. Retaining vital levels of DNA integrity requires cells to mobilize compensatory efforts in elevating their DNA-repair capacity. Accordingly, we hypothesized to find increased expression rates of the DNA-repair genes X-ray repair cross complementing 1 (XRCC1), poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), and polymerase β (Polβ) in PBMCs of PTSD patients as compared to controls, leading to functionally relevant changes in DNA-repair kinetics. In a cohort of 14 refugees with PTSD and 15 without PTSD, we found significantly higher XRCC1 expression in PTSD patients than controls (U = 161.0, p = 0.009, Cohen's r = 0.49), and positive correlations between the severity of PTSD symptoms and the expression of XRCC1 (rS = 0.57, p = 0.002) and PARP1 (rS = 0.43, p = 0.022). Higher XRCC1 (F = 2.39, p = 0.010, η2p = 0.10) and PARP1 (F = 2.15, p = 0.022, η2p = 0.09) expression accounted for slower repair of experimentally X-ray irradiation-induced DNA damage, highlighting the possible physiological relevance of altered DNA-repair gene expression in PTSD. Our study provides first evidence for a compensatory regulation of DNA-repair mechanisms in PTSD. We discuss the implications of increased DNA damage and altered DNA-repair mechanisms in immune senescence, premature aging, and increased physical morbidity in PTSD.
Uncovering the Relationship between Selenium Status, Age, Health, and Dietary Habits : Insights from a Large Population Study including Nonagenarian Offspring from the MARK-AGE Project
2023-05-04, Giacconi, Robertina, Piacenza, Francesco, Aversano, Valentina, Zampieri, Michele, Bürkle, Alexander, Moreno-Villanueva, Maria, Dollé, Martijn E. T., Jansen, Eugène, Grune, Tilman, Gonos, Efstathios S.
An inadequate selenium (Se) status can accelerate the aging process, increasing the vulnerability to age-related diseases. The study aimed to investigate plasma Se and Se species in a large population, including 2200 older adults from the general population (RASIG), 514 nonagenarian offspring (GO), and 293 GO Spouses (SGO). Plasma Se levels in women exhibit an inverted U-shaped pattern, increasing with age until the post-menopausal period and then declining. Conversely, men exhibit a linear decline in plasma Se levels with age. Subjects from Finland had the highest plasma Se values, while those from Poland had the lowest ones. Plasma Se was influenced by fish and vitamin consumption, but there were no significant differences between RASIG, GO, and SGO. Plasma Se was positively associated with albumin, HDL, total cholesterol, fibrinogen, and triglycerides and negatively associated with homocysteine. Fractionation analysis showed that Se distribution among plasma selenoproteins is affected by age, glucometabolic and inflammatory factors, and being GO or SGO. These findings show that sex-specific, nutritional, and inflammatory factors play a crucial role in the regulation of Se plasma levels throughout the aging process and that the shared environment of GO and SGO plays a role in their distinctive Se fractionation.
Comparative analysis of chlorambucil-induced DNA lesion formation and repair in a spectrum of different human cell systems
2023, Krassnig, Sarah C., Mäser, Marina, Probst, Nicola Anna, Werner, Jens, Schlett, Charlotte, Schumann, Nina, von Scheven, Gudrun, Mangerich, Aswin, Bürkle, Alexander
Chlorambucil (CLB) belongs to the class of nitrogen mustards (NMs), which are highly reactive bifunctional alkylating agents and were the first chemotherapeutic agents developed. They form DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs), which cause a blockage of DNA strand separation, inhibiting essential processes in DNA metabolism like replication and transcription. In fast replicating cells, e.g., tumor cells, this can induce cell death. The upregulation of ICL repair is thought to be a key factor for the resistance of tumor cells to ICL-inducing cytostatic agents including NMs. To monitor induction and repair of CLB-induced ICLs, we adjusted the automated reversed fluorometric analysis of alkaline DNA unwinding assay (rFADU) for the detection of ICLs in adherent cells. For the detection of monoalkylated DNA bases we established an LC-MS/MS method. We performed a comparative analysis of adduct formation and removal in five human cell lines and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) after treatment with CLB. Dose-dependent increases in adduct formation were observed, and suitable treatment concentrations were identified for each cell line, which were then used for monitoring the kinetics of adduct formation. We observed significant differences in the repair kinetics of the cell lines tested. For example, in A2780 cells, hTERT immortalized VH10 cells, and in PBMCs a time-dependent repair of the two main monoalkylated DNA-adducts was confirmed. Regarding ICLs, repair was observed in all cell systems except for PBMCs. In conclusion, LC-MS/MS analyses combined with the rFADU technique are powerful tools to study the molecular mechanisms of NM-induced DNA damage and repair. By applying these methods to a spectrum of human cell systems of different origin and transformation status, we obtained insight into the cell-type specific repair of different CLB-induced DNA lesions, which may help identify novel resistance mechanisms of tumors and define molecular targets for therapeutic interventions.
Association between fat-soluble vitamins and self-reported health status : a cross-sectional analysis of the MARK-AGE cohort
2022-08-14, Stokes, Caroline S., Weber, Daniela, Wagenpfeil, Stefan, Stuetz, Wolfgang, Moreno-Villanueva, Maria, Dollé, Martijn E. T., Jansen, Eugène, Gonos, Efstathios S., Bernhardt, Jürgen, Bürkle, Alexander
Self-rated health (SRH) is associated with higher risk of death. Since low plasma levels of fat-soluble vitamins are related to mortality, we aimed to assess whether plasma concentrations of vitamins A, D and E were associated with SRH in the MARK-AGE study. We included 3158 participants (52% female) aged between 35-75 years. Cross-sectional data were collected via questionnaires. An enzyme immunoassay quantified 25-hydroxyvitamin D and HPLC determined α-tocopherol and retinol plasma concentrations. The median 25-hydroxyvitamin D and retinol concentrations differed significantly (P<0.001) between SRH categories, and were lower in the combined fair/poor category versus the excellent, very good, good categories (25-hydroxvitamin D: 40.8 vs. 51.9, 49.3, 46.7 nmol/l, respectively; retinol: 1.67 vs. 1.75, 1.74, 1.70 µmol/l, respectively). Both vitamin D and retinol status were independently associated with fair/poor SRH in multiple regression analyses: adjusted ORs (95% CI) for the vitamin D insufficiency, deficiency, severe deficiency categories were 1.33 (1.06-1.68), 1.50 (1.17-1.93), and 1.83 (1.34-2.50) respectively; P=0.015, P=0.001, P<0.001, and for the second/third/fourth retinol quartiles: 1.44 (1.18-1.75), 1.57 (1.28-1.93), 1.49 (1.20-1.84); all P<0.001. No significant associations were reported for α-tocopherol quartiles. Lower vitamin A and D status emerged as independent markers for fair/poor SRH. Further insights into the long-term implications of these modifiable nutrients on health status are warranted.