Chemistry meets biology in colitis-associated carcinogenesis.
2013-11, Mangerich, Aswin, Dedon, Peter C., Fox, James G., Tannenbaum, Steven R., Wogan, Gerald N.
The intestine comprises an exceptional venue for a dynamic and complex interplay of numerous chemical and biological processes. Here, multiple chemical and biological systems, including the intestinal tissue itself, its associated immune system, the gut microbiota, xenobiotics, and metabolites meet and interact to form a sophisticated and tightly regulated state of tissue homoeostasis. Disturbance of this homeostasis can cause inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)—a chronic disease of multifactorial etiology that is strongly associated with increased risk for cancer development. This review addresses recent developments in research into chemical and biological mechanisms underlying the etiology of inflammation-induced colon cancer. Beginning with a general overview of reactive chemical species generated during colonic inflammation, the mechanistic interplay between chemical and biological mediators of inflammation, the role of genetic toxicology, and microbial pathogenesis in disease development are discussed. When possible, we systematically compare evidence from studies utilizing human IBD patients with experimental investigations in mice. The comparison reveals that many strong pathological and mechanistic correlates exist between mouse models of colitis-associated cancer, and the clinically relevant situation in humans. We also summarize several emerging issues in the field, such as the carcinogenic potential of novel inflammation-related DNA adducts and genotoxic microbial factors, the systemic dimension of inflammation-induced genotoxicity, and the complex role of genome maintenance mechanisms during these processes. Taken together, current evidence points to the induction of genetic and epigenetic alterations by chemical and biological inflammatory stimuli ultimately leading to cancer formation.
Infection-induced colitis in mice causes dynamic and tissue-specific changes in stress response and DNA damage leading to colon cancer
2012-07-03, Mangerich, Aswin, Knutson, Charles, Parry, Nicola, Muthupalani, Sureshkumar, Ye, Wenjie, Prestwich, Erin, Cui, Liang, McFaline, Jose, Mobley, Melissa, Ge, Zhongming, Wishnok, John, Wogan, Gerald, Fox, James G., Tannenbaum, Steven, Dedon, Peter
Helicobacter hepaticus-infected Rag2-/- mice emulate many aspects of human inflammatory bowel disease, including the development of colitis and colon cancer. To elucidate mechanisms of inflammation-induced carcinogenesis, we undertook a comprehensive analysis of histopathology, molecular damage, and gene expression changes during disease progression in these mice. Infected mice developed severe colitis and hepatitis by 10 wk post-infection, progressing into colon carcinoma by 20 wk post-infection, with pronounced pathology in the cecum and proximal colon marked by infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages. Transcriptional profiling revealed decreased expression of DNA repair and oxidative stress response genes in colon, but not in liver. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed higher levels of DNA and RNA damage products in liver compared to colon and infection-induced increases in 5-chlorocytosine in DNA and RNA and hypoxanthine in DNA. Paradoxically, infection was associated with decreased levels of DNA etheno adducts. Levels of nucleic acid damage from the same chemical class were strongly correlated in both liver and colon. The results support a model of inflammation-mediated carcinogenesis involving infiltration of phagocytes and generation of reactive species that cause local molecular damage leading to cell dysfunction, mutation, and cell death. There are strong correlations among histopathology, phagocyte infiltration, and damage chemistry that suggest a major role for neutrophils in inflammation-associated cancer progression. Further, paradoxical changes in nucleic acid damage were observed in tissue- and chemistry-specific patterns. The results also reveal features of cell stress response that point to microbial pathophysiology and mechanisms of cell senescence as important mechanistic links to cancer.