NAD+ Acts as a Protective Factor in Cellular Stress Response to DNA Alkylating Agents
2023-10-02, Ruszkiewicz, Joanna A., Papatheodorou, Ylea, Jäck, Nathalie, Melzig, Jasmin, Eble, Franziska, Pirker, Annika, Thomann, Marius, Haberer, Andreas, Rothmiller, Simone, Bürkle, Alexander, Mangerich, Aswin
Sulfur mustard (SM) and its derivatives are potent genotoxic agents, which have been shown to trigger the activation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) and the depletion of their substrate, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). NAD+ is an essential molecule involved in numerous cellular pathways, including genome integrity and DNA repair, and thus, NAD+ supplementation might be beneficial for mitigating mustard-induced (geno)toxicity. In this study, the role of NAD+ depletion and elevation in the genotoxic stress response to SM derivatives, i.e., the monofunctional agent 2-chloroethyl-ethyl sulfide (CEES) and the crosslinking agent mechlorethamine (HN2), was investigated with the use of NAD+ booster nicotinamide riboside (NR) and NAD+ synthesis inhibitor FK866. The effects were analyzed in immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT) or monocyte-like cell line THP-1. In HaCaT cells, NR supplementation, increased NAD+ levels, and elevated PAR response, however, did not affect ATP levels or DNA damage repair, nor did it attenuate long- and short-term cytotoxicities. On the other hand, the depletion of cellular NAD+ via FK866 sensitized HaCaT cells to genotoxic stress, particularly CEES exposure, whereas NR supplementation, by increasing cellular NAD+ levels, rescued the sensitizing FK866 effect. Intriguingly, in THP-1 cells, the NR-induced elevation of cellular NAD+ levels did attenuate toxicity of the mustard compounds, especially upon CEES exposure. Together, our results reveal that NAD+ is an important molecule in the pathomechanism of SM derivatives, exhibiting compound-specificity. Moreover, the cell line-dependent protective effects of NR are indicative of system-specificity of the application of this NAD+ booster.
Influence of chain length and branching on poly(ADP-ribose)–protein interactions
2023, Löffler, Tobias, Krüger, Annika, Zirak Yousefabadi, Peyman, Winterhalder, Martin, Müller, Anna-Lena, Fischbach, Arthur, Mangerich, Aswin, Zumbusch, Andreas
Hundreds of proteins interact with poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) via multiple PAR interaction motifs, thereby regulating their physico-chemical properties, sub-cellular localizations, enzymatic activities, or protein stability. Here, we present a targeted approach based on fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to characterize potential structure-specific interactions of PAR molecules of defined chain length and branching with three prime PAR-binding proteins, the tumor suppressor protein p53, histone H1, and the histone chaperone APLF. Our study reveals complex and structure-specific PAR–protein interactions. Quantitative Kd values were determined and binding affinities for all three proteins were shown to be in the nanomolar range. We report PAR chain length dependent binding of p53 and H1, yet chain length independent binding of APLF. For all three PAR binders, we found a preference for linear over hyperbranched PAR. Importantly, protein- and PAR-structure-specific binding modes were revealed. Thus, while the H1-PAR interaction occurred largely on a bi-molecular 1:1 basis, p53—and potentially also APLF—can form complex multivalent PAR–protein structures. In conclusion, our study gives detailed and quantitative insight into PAR–protein interactions in a solution-based setting at near physiological buffer conditions. The results support the notion of protein and PAR-structure-specific binding modes that have evolved to fit the purpose of the respective biochemical functions and biological contexts.
New aspects in deriving health-based guidance values for bromate in swimming pool water
2022-06, Röhl, Claudia, Batke, Monika, Damm, Georg, Freyberger, Alexius, Gebel, Thomas, Gundert-Remy, Ursula, Hengstler, Jan G., Mangerich, Aswin, Matthiessen, Axel, Partosch, Falko
Bromate, classified as a EU CLP 1B carcinogen, is a typical by-product of the disinfection of drinking and swimming pool water. The aim of this study was (a) to provide data on the occurrence of bromate in pool water, (b) to re-evaluate the carcinogenic MOA of bromate in the light of existing data, (c) to assess the possible exposure to bromate via swimming pool water and (d) to inform the derivation of cancer risk-related bromate concentrations in swimming pool water. Measurements from monitoring analysis of 229 samples showed bromate concentrations in seawater pools up to 34 mg/L. A comprehensive non-systematic literature search was done and the quality of the studies on genotoxicity and carcinogenicity was assessed by Klimisch criteria (Klimisch et al., Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 25:1-5, 1997) and SciRAP tool (Beronius et al., J Appl Toxicol, 38:1460-1470, 2018) respectively. Benchmark dose (BMD) modeling was performed using the modeling average mode in BMDS 3.1 and PROAST 66.40, 67 and 69 (human cancer BMDL10; EFSA 2017). For exposure assessment, data from a wide range of sources were evaluated for their reliability. Different target groups (infants/toddlers, children and adults) and exposure scenarios (recreational, sport-active swimmers, top athletes) were considered for oral, inhalation and dermal exposure. Exposure was calculated according to the frequency of swimming events and duration in water. For illustration, cancer risk-related bromate concentrations in pool water were calculated for different target groups, taking into account their exposure using the hBMDL10 and a cancer risk of 1 in 100,000. Convincing evidence was obtained from a multitude of studies that bromate induces oxidative DNA damage and acts as a clastogen in vitro and in vivo. Since statistical modeling of the available genotoxicity data is compatible with both linear as well as non-linear dose-response relationships, bromate should be conservatively considered to be a non-threshold carcinogen. BMD modeling with model averaging for renal cancer studies (Kurokawa et al., J Natl. Cancer Inst, 1983 and 1986a; DeAngelo et al., Toxicol Pathol 26:587-594, 1998) resulted in a median hBMDL10 of 0.65 mg bromate/kg body weight (bw) per day. Evaluation of different age and activity groups revealed that top athletes had the highest exposure, followed by sport-active children, sport-active adults, infants and toddlers, children and adults. The predominant route of exposure was oral (73-98%) by swallowing water, followed by the dermal route (2-27%), while the inhalation route was insignificant (< 0.5%). Accepting the same risk level for all population groups resulted in different guidance values due to the large variation in exposure. For example, for an additional risk of 1 in 100,000, the bromate concentrations would range between 0.011 for top athletes, 0.015 for sport-active children and 2.1 mg/L for adults. In conclusion, the present study shows that health risks due to bromate exposure by swimming pool water cannot be excluded and that large differences in risk exist depending on the individual swimming habits and water concentrations.
ADP‐ribosyltransferases, an update on function and nomenclature
2022, Lüscher, Bernhard, Ahel, Ivan, Altmeyer, Matthias, Ashworth, Alan, Bai, Peter, Chang, Paul, Cohen, Michael, Corda, Daniela, Dantzer, Françoise, Mangerich, Aswin
ADP-ribosylation, a modification of proteins, nucleic acids and metabolites, confers broad functions, including roles in stress responses elicited for example by DNA damage and viral infection and is involved in intra- and extracellular signaling, chromatin and transcriptional regulation, protein biosynthesis and cell death. ADP-ribosylation is catalyzed by ADP-ribosyltransferases, which transfer ADP-ribose from NAD+ onto substrates. The modification, which occurs as mono- or poly-ADP-ribosylation, is reversible due to the action of different ADP-ribosylhydrolases. Importantly, inhibitors of ADP-ribosyltransferases are approved or are being developed for clinical use. Moreover, ADP-ribosylhydrolases are being assessed as therapeutic targets, foremost as anti-viral drugs and for oncological indications. Due to the development of novel reagents and major technological advances that allow the study of ADP-ribosylation in unprecedented detail, an increasing number of cellular processes and pathways are being identified that are regulated by ADP-ribosylation. In addition, characterization of biochemical and structural aspects of the ADP-ribosyltransferases and their catalytic activities have expanded our understanding of this protein family. This increased knowledge requires that a common nomenclature be used to describe the relevant enzymes. Therefore, in this viewpoint, we propose an updated and broadly supported nomenclature for mammalian ADP-ribosyltransferases that will facilitate future discussions when addressing the biochemistry and biology of ADP-ribosylation. This is combined with a brief description of the main functions of mammalian ADP-ribosyltransferases to illustrate the increasing diversity of mono- and poly-ADP-ribose mediated cellular processes.
PARP1 and XRCC1 exhibit a reciprocal relationship in genotoxic stress response
2023, Reber, Julia M., Božić-Petković, Jovana, Lippmann, Michelle, Mazzardo, Marvin, Dilger, Asisa, Warmers, Rebecca, Bürkle, Alexander, Mangerich, Aswin
PARP1 (aka ARTD1) acts as a prime sensor of cellular genotoxic stress response. PARP1 detects DNA strand breaks and subsequently catalyzes the formation of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR), which leads to the recruitment of the scaffold protein XRCC1 during base excision and single strand break repair and the assembly of multi-protein complexes to promote DNA repair. Here, we reveal that the recruitment of either protein to sites of DNA damage is impeded in the absence of the other, indicating a strong reciprocal relationship between the two DNA repair factors during genotoxic stress response. We further analyzed several cellular and molecular endpoints in HeLa PARP1 KO, XRCC1 KO, and PARP1/XRCC1 double KO (DKO) cells after genotoxic treatments, i.e., PARylation response, NAD+ levels, clonogenic survival, cell cycle progression, cell death, and DNA repair. The analysis of NAD+ levels and cytotoxicity after treatment with the topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin revealed a hypersensitivity phenotype of XRCC1 KO cells compared to PARP1 KO cells-an effect that could be rescued by the additional genetic deletion of PARP1 as well as by pharmacological PARP inhibition. Moreover, impaired repair of hydrogen peroxide and CPT-induced DNA damage in XRCC1 KO cells could be partially rescued by additional deletion of PARP1. Our results therefore highlight important reciprocal regulatory functions of XRCC1 and PARP1 during genotoxic stress response.
Acceptance criteria for new approach methods in toxicology and human health-relevant life science research – part I
2023, Holzer, Anna-Katharina, Dreser, Nadine, Pallocca, Giorgia, Mangerich, Aswin, Stacey, Glyn, Dipalo, Michael, Rovida, Costanza, Wirtz, Petra H., Hartung, Thomas, Leist, Marcel
Every test procedure, scientific and non-scientific, has inherent uncertainties, even when performed according to a standard operating procedure (SOP). In addition, it is prone to errors, defects, and mistakes introduced by operators, laboratory equipment, or materials used. Adherence to an SOP and comprehensive validation of the test method cannot guarantee that each test run produces data within the acceptable range of variability and with the precision and accuracy determined during the method validation. We illustrate here (part I) why controlling the validity of each test run is an important element of experimental design. The definition and application of acceptance criteria (AC) for the validity of test runs is important for the setup and use of test methods, particularly for the use of new approach methods (NAM) in toxicity testing. AC can be used for decision rules on how to handle data, e.g., to accept the data for further use (AC fulfilled) or to reject the data (AC not fulfilled). The adherence to AC has important requirements and consequences that may seem surprising at first sight: (i) AC depend on a test method’s objectives, e.g., on the types/concentrations of chemicals tested, the regulatory context, the desired throughput; (ii) AC are applied and documented at each test run, while validation of a method (including the definition of AC) is only performed once; (iii) if AC are altered, then the set of data produced by a method can change. AC, if missing, are the blind spot of quality assurance: Test results may not be reliable and comparable. The establishment and uses of AC will be further detailed in part II of this series.
Fueling genome maintenance : On the versatile roles of NAD+ in preserving DNA integrity
2022-05-17, Ruszkiewicz, Joanna A., Bürkle, Alexander, Mangerich, Aswin
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is a versatile biomolecule acting as a master regulator and substrate in various cellular processes, including redox regulation, metabolism, and various signaling pathways. In this article, we concisely and critically review the role of NAD+ in mechanisms promoting genome maintenance. Numerous NAD+-dependent reactions are involved in the preservation of genome stability, the cellular DNA damage response, and other pathways regulating nucleic acid metabolism, such as gene expression and cell proliferation pathways. Of note, NAD+ serves as a substrate to ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTs), sirtuins (SIRTs), and potentially also eukaryotic DNA ligases, all of which regulate various aspects of DNA integrity, damage repair, and gene expression. Finally, we critically analyze recent developments in the field as well as discuss challenges associated with therapeutic actions intended to raise NAD+ levels.
Comparative analysis of chlorambucil-induced DNA lesion formation and repair in a spectrum of different human cell systems
2023, Krassnig, Sarah C., Mäser, Marina, Probst, Nicola Anna, Werner, Jens, Schlett, Charlotte, Schumann, Nina, von Scheven, Gudrun, Mangerich, Aswin, Bürkle, Alexander
Chlorambucil (CLB) belongs to the class of nitrogen mustards (NMs), which are highly reactive bifunctional alkylating agents and were the first chemotherapeutic agents developed. They form DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs), which cause a blockage of DNA strand separation, inhibiting essential processes in DNA metabolism like replication and transcription. In fast replicating cells, e.g., tumor cells, this can induce cell death. The upregulation of ICL repair is thought to be a key factor for the resistance of tumor cells to ICL-inducing cytostatic agents including NMs. To monitor induction and repair of CLB-induced ICLs, we adjusted the automated reversed fluorometric analysis of alkaline DNA unwinding assay (rFADU) for the detection of ICLs in adherent cells. For the detection of monoalkylated DNA bases we established an LC-MS/MS method. We performed a comparative analysis of adduct formation and removal in five human cell lines and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) after treatment with CLB. Dose-dependent increases in adduct formation were observed, and suitable treatment concentrations were identified for each cell line, which were then used for monitoring the kinetics of adduct formation. We observed significant differences in the repair kinetics of the cell lines tested. For example, in A2780 cells, hTERT immortalized VH10 cells, and in PBMCs a time-dependent repair of the two main monoalkylated DNA-adducts was confirmed. Regarding ICLs, repair was observed in all cell systems except for PBMCs. In conclusion, LC-MS/MS analyses combined with the rFADU technique are powerful tools to study the molecular mechanisms of NM-induced DNA damage and repair. By applying these methods to a spectrum of human cell systems of different origin and transformation status, we obtained insight into the cell-type specific repair of different CLB-induced DNA lesions, which may help identify novel resistance mechanisms of tumors and define molecular targets for therapeutic interventions.
The C-Terminal Domain of Y-Box Binding Protein 1 Exhibits Structure-Specific Binding to Poly(ADP-Ribose), Which Regulates PARP1 Activity
2022-06-21, Naumenko, Konstantin N., Sukhanova, Mariya V., Hamon, Loic, Kurgina, Tatyana A., Anarbaev, Rashid O., Mangerich, Aswin, Pastré, David, Lavrik, Olga I.
Y-box-binding protein 1 (YB-1) is a multifunctional protein involved in the regulation of gene expression. Recent studies showed that in addition to its role in the RNA and DNA metabolism, YB-1 is involved in the regulation of PARP1 activity, which catalyzes poly(ADP-ribose) [PAR] synthesis under genotoxic stress through auto-poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation or protein trans-poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. Nonetheless, the exact mechanism by which YB-1 regulates PAR synthesis remains to be determined. YB-1 contains a disordered Ala/Pro-rich N-terminal domain, a cold shock domain, and an intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain (CTD) carrying four clusters of positively charged amino acid residues. Here, we examined the functional role of the disordered CTD of YB-1 in PAR binding and in the regulation of PARP1-driven PAR synthesis in vitro. We demonstrated that the rate of PARP1-dependent synthesis of PAR is higher in the presence of YB-1 and is tightly controlled by the interaction between YB-1 CTD and PAR. Moreover, YB-1 acts as an effective cofactor in the PAR synthesis catalyzed by the PARP1 point mutants that generate various PAR polymeric structures, namely, short hypo- or hyperbranched polymers. We showed that either a decrease in chain length or an increase in branching frequency of PAR affect its binding affinity for YB-1 and YB-1–mediated stimulation of PARP1 enzymatic activity. These results provide important insight into the mechanism underlying the regulation of PARP1 activity by PAR-binding proteins containing disordered regions with clusters of positively charged amino acid residues, suggesting that YB-1 CTD-like domains may be considered PAR “readers” just as other known PAR-binding modules.
The EU chemicals strategy for sustainability : critical reflections on proposed regulatory changes for endocrine disruptors and mixture toxicity
2022-04, Batke, Monika, Damm, Georg, Foth, Heidi, Freyberger, Alexius, Gebel, Thomas, Gundert-Remy, Ursula, Hengstler, Jan G., Mangerich, Aswin, Partosch, Falko, Röhl, Claudia