NAD+ Acts as a Protective Factor in Cellular Stress Response to DNA Alkylating Agents
2023-10-02, Ruszkiewicz, Joanna A., Papatheodorou, Ylea, Jäck, Nathalie, Melzig, Jasmin, Eble, Franziska, Pirker, Annika, Thomann, Marius, Haberer, Andreas, Rothmiller, Simone, Bürkle, Alexander, Mangerich, Aswin
Sulfur mustard (SM) and its derivatives are potent genotoxic agents, which have been shown to trigger the activation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) and the depletion of their substrate, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). NAD+ is an essential molecule involved in numerous cellular pathways, including genome integrity and DNA repair, and thus, NAD+ supplementation might be beneficial for mitigating mustard-induced (geno)toxicity. In this study, the role of NAD+ depletion and elevation in the genotoxic stress response to SM derivatives, i.e., the monofunctional agent 2-chloroethyl-ethyl sulfide (CEES) and the crosslinking agent mechlorethamine (HN2), was investigated with the use of NAD+ booster nicotinamide riboside (NR) and NAD+ synthesis inhibitor FK866. The effects were analyzed in immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT) or monocyte-like cell line THP-1. In HaCaT cells, NR supplementation, increased NAD+ levels, and elevated PAR response, however, did not affect ATP levels or DNA damage repair, nor did it attenuate long- and short-term cytotoxicities. On the other hand, the depletion of cellular NAD+ via FK866 sensitized HaCaT cells to genotoxic stress, particularly CEES exposure, whereas NR supplementation, by increasing cellular NAD+ levels, rescued the sensitizing FK866 effect. Intriguingly, in THP-1 cells, the NR-induced elevation of cellular NAD+ levels did attenuate toxicity of the mustard compounds, especially upon CEES exposure. Together, our results reveal that NAD+ is an important molecule in the pathomechanism of SM derivatives, exhibiting compound-specificity. Moreover, the cell line-dependent protective effects of NR are indicative of system-specificity of the application of this NAD+ booster.
NAD+ in sulfur mustard toxicity
2020-05, Ruszkiewicz, Joanna A., Bürkle, Alexander, Mangerich, Aswin
Sulfur mustard (SM) is a toxicant and chemical warfare agent with strong vesicant properties. The mechanisms behind SM-induced toxicity are not fully understood and no antidote or effective therapy against SM exists. Both, the risk of SM release in asymmetric conflicts or terrorist attacks and the usage of SM-derived nitrogen mustards as cancer chemotherapeutics, render the mechanisms of mustard-induced toxicity a highly relevant research subject. Herein, we review a central role of the abundant cellular molecule nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) in molecular mechanisms underlying SM toxicity. We also discuss the potential beneficial effects of NAD+ precursors in counteracting SM-induced damage.
Mass spectrometric analysis of sulfur mustard-induced biomolecular adducts : Are DNA adducts suitable biomarkers of exposure?
2018-09-01, Zubel, Tabea, Bürkle, Alexander, Mangerich, Aswin
The bi-functional chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (SM), whose release in asymmetric conflicts or terrorist attacks represents a realistic threat, induces several kinds of biomolecular adducts, including highly toxic DNA adducts. Isotope dilution liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (ID-LC-MS/MS) is considered the gold standard for highly accurate, precise, specific and sensitive quantification of DNA adducts in general. Recently, a number of LC-MS/MS approaches have been established to analyze SM-induced protein and DNA adducts in cell culture and rodent animal models. As DNA adducts are mechanism-based biomarkers for SM exposure, results from such studies provide a deeper understanding of the etiology of SM-induced pathologies, especially of long-term effects such as cancer formation. As a result, medical treatment of SM-exposed individuals might be improved. Yet, despite the progress that has been made during the last years, there is still a need for advanced methods of ID-LC-MS/MS for the detection and quantitation of SM adducts.
ADP‐ribosyltransferases, an update on function and nomenclature
2022, Lüscher, Bernhard, Ahel, Ivan, Altmeyer, Matthias, Ashworth, Alan, Bai, Peter, Chang, Paul, Cohen, Michael, Corda, Daniela, Dantzer, Françoise, Mangerich, Aswin
ADP-ribosylation, a modification of proteins, nucleic acids and metabolites, confers broad functions, including roles in stress responses elicited for example by DNA damage and viral infection and is involved in intra- and extracellular signaling, chromatin and transcriptional regulation, protein biosynthesis and cell death. ADP-ribosylation is catalyzed by ADP-ribosyltransferases, which transfer ADP-ribose from NAD+ onto substrates. The modification, which occurs as mono- or poly-ADP-ribosylation, is reversible due to the action of different ADP-ribosylhydrolases. Importantly, inhibitors of ADP-ribosyltransferases are approved or are being developed for clinical use. Moreover, ADP-ribosylhydrolases are being assessed as therapeutic targets, foremost as anti-viral drugs and for oncological indications. Due to the development of novel reagents and major technological advances that allow the study of ADP-ribosylation in unprecedented detail, an increasing number of cellular processes and pathways are being identified that are regulated by ADP-ribosylation. In addition, characterization of biochemical and structural aspects of the ADP-ribosyltransferases and their catalytic activities have expanded our understanding of this protein family. This increased knowledge requires that a common nomenclature be used to describe the relevant enzymes. Therefore, in this viewpoint, we propose an updated and broadly supported nomenclature for mammalian ADP-ribosyltransferases that will facilitate future discussions when addressing the biochemistry and biology of ADP-ribosylation. This is combined with a brief description of the main functions of mammalian ADP-ribosyltransferases to illustrate the increasing diversity of mono- and poly-ADP-ribose mediated cellular processes.
Comparison of Aristolochic acid I derived DNA adduct levels in human renal toxicity models
2019-05, Bastek, Heinke, Zubel, Tabea, Stemmer, Kerstin, Mangerich, Aswin, Beneke, Sascha, Dietrich, Daniel R.
Aristolochic acid (AA) dependent human nephropathy results either from environmental exposure to Aristolochiaceae plant subspecies or their use in traditional phytotherapy. The toxic components are structurally related nitrophenanthrene carboxylic acids, i.e. Aristolochic acid I (AAI) and II (AAII). AAI is considered to be the major cause of Aristolochic acid nephropathy, characterized by severe renal fibrosis and upper urothelial cancer. Following enzymatic activation in kidney and/or liver, AAI metabolites react with genomic DNA to form persistent DNA adducts with purines. To determine whether AAI can be activated in human renal cells to form DNA adducts, we exposed telomerase immortalized renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTEC/TERT1), the human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cell line, as well as primary human kidney cells (pHKC) to AAI in vitro. We modified an isotope dilution ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (ID-UPLC-MS/MS) based method for the quantification of dA-AAI adducts in genomic DNA. In addition, time dependent accumulation of adducts in renal cortex and bladder tissue from AAI/II treated Eker rats were used to validate the detection method. AAI-induced toxicity in human renal cells was determined by dA-AAI adduct quantification, the impact on cell viability, and NQO1 expression and activity. Our findings demonstrated adduct formation in all cell lines, although only pHKC and RPTEC/TERT1 expressed NQO1. The highest adduct formation was detected in pHKC despite low NQO1 expression, while we observed much lower adduct levels in NQO1-negative HEK293 cells. Adduct formation and decreased cell viability correlated only weakly. Therefore, our data suggested that i.) enzymes other than NQO1 could be at least equally important for AA bioactivation in human renal proximal tubule cells, and ii.) the suggested correlation between adduct levels and viability appears to be questionable.
PARP-1 protects against colorectal tumor induction, but promotes inflammation-driven colorectal tumor progression
2018-04-24, Dörsam, Bastian, Seiwert, Nina, Foersch, Sebastian, Stroh, Svenja, Nagel, Georg, Begaliew, Diana, Diehl, Erika, Stier, Anna, Mangerich, Aswin, Fahrer, Jörg
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common tumor entities, which is causally linked to DNA repair defects and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Here, we studied the role of the DNA repair protein poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) in CRC. Tissue microarray analysis revealed PARP-1 overexpression in human CRC, correlating with disease progression. To elucidate its function in CRC, PARP-1 deficient (PARP-1−/−) and wild-type animals (WT) were subjected to azoxymethane (AOM)/ dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colorectal carcinogenesis. Miniendoscopy showed significantly more tumors in WT than in PARP-1−/− mice. Although the lack of PARP-1 moderately increased DNA damage, both genotypes exhibited comparable levels of AOM-induced autophagy and cell death. Interestingly, miniendoscopy revealed a higher AOM/DSS-triggered intestinal inflammation in WT animals, which was associated with increased levels of innate immune cells and proinflammatory cytokines. Tumors in WT animals were more aggressive, showing higher levels of STAT3 activation and cyclin D1 up-regulation. PARP-1−/− animals were then crossed with O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT)-deficient animals hypersensitive to AOM. Intriguingly, PARP-1−/−/MGMT−/− double knockout (DKO) mice developed more, but much smaller tumors than MGMT−/− animals. In contrast to MGMT-deficient mice, DKO animals showed strongly reduced AOM-dependent colonic cell death despite similar O6-methylguanine levels. Studies with PARP-1−/− cells provided evidence for increased alkylation-induced DNA strand break formation when MGMT was inhibited, suggesting a role of PARP-1 in the response to O6-methylguanine adducts. Our findings reveal PARP-1 as a double-edged sword in colorectal carcinogenesis, which suppresses tumor initiation following DNA alkylation in a MGMT-dependent manner, but promotes inflammation-driven tumor progression.
Impact of the Cellular Zinc Status on PARP-1 Activity and Genomic Stability in HeLa S3 Cells
2021-03-15, Wedler, Nadin, Matthäus, Tizia, Strauch, Bettina, Dilger, Elena, Waterstraat, Martin, Mangerich, Aswin, Hartwig, Andrea
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) is actively involved in several DNA repair pathways, especially in the detection of DNA lesions and DNA damage signaling. However, the mechanisms of PARP-1 activation are not fully understood. PARP-1 contains three zinc finger structures, among which the first zinc finger has a remarkably low affinity toward zinc ions. Within the present study, we investigated the impact of the cellular zinc status on PARP-1 activity and on genomic stability in HeLa S3 cells. Significant impairment of H2O2-induced poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation and an increase in DNA strand breaks were detected in the case of zinc depletion by the zinc chelator N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridinylmethyl)-1,2-ethanediamine (TPEN) which reduced the total and labile zinc concentrations. On the contrary, preincubation of cells with ZnCl2 led to an overload of total as well as labile zinc and resulted in an increased poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation response upon H2O2 treatment. Furthermore, the impact of the cellular zinc status on gene expression profiles was investigated via high-throughput RT-qPCR, analyzing 95 genes related to metal homeostasis, DNA damage and oxidative stress response, cell cycle regulation and proliferation. Genes encoding metallothioneins responded most sensitively on conditions of mild zinc depletion or moderate zinc overload. Zinc depletion induced by higher concentrations of TPEN led to a significant induction of genes encoding DNA repair factors and cell cycle arrest, indicating the induction of DNA damage and genomic instability. Zinc overload provoked an up-regulation of the oxidative stress response. Altogether, the results highlight the potential role of zinc signaling for PARP-1 activation and the maintenance of genomic stability.
A novel exposure system generating nebulized aerosol of sulfur mustard in comparison to the standard submerse exposure
2019-01, Tsoutsoulopoulos, Amelie, Siegert, Markus, John, Harald, Zubel, Tabea, Mangerich, Aswin, Schmidt, Annette, Mückter, Harald, Gudermann, Thomas, Thiermann, Horst, Popp, Tanja
Inhalation of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (SM) is associated with severe acute and long-term pulmonary dysfunctions and health effects. The still not completely elucidated molecular toxicology and a missing targeted therapy emphasize the need for further research. However, appropriate human data are extremely rare. In vivo animal experiments are often regarded as gold standard in toxicology but may exhibit significant differences compared to the human pulmonary anatomy and physiology. Thus, alternative in vitro exposure methods, adapted to the human in vivo situation by exposing cells at the air-liquid interface (ALI), are complimentary approaches at a cellular level. So far, it is unclear whether the enhanced experimental complexity of ALI exposure, that is potentially biologically more meaningful, is superior to submerged exposures which are typically performed. Aim of our study was the evaluation of an appropriate in vitro exposure system (CULTEX® Radial Flow System (RFS) equipped with an eFlow® membrane nebulizer) for the exposure of cultivated human lung cells (A549) with SM under ALI conditions. Cellular responses (i.e. cell viability) and formation of SM-specific DNA-adducts were investigated and compared between ALI and submerse SM exposures. Our results proved the safe applicability of our ALI exposure system setup. The aerosol generation and subsequent deposition at the ALI were stable and uniform. The technical CULTEX® RFS setup is based on ALI exposure with excess of aerosol from that only some is deposited on the cell layer. As expected, a lower cytotoxicity and DNA-adduct formation were detected when identical SM concentrations were used compared to experiments under submerged conditions. A distinct advantage of SM-ALI compared to SM-submerse exposures could not be found in our experiments. Though, the CULTEX® RFS was found suitable for SM-ALI exposures.
Quantitation of Poly(ADP-Ribose) by Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry
2017, Zubel, Tabea, Martello, Rita, Bürkle, Alexander, Mangerich, Aswin
Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation), i.e., the formation of the nucleic acid-like biopolymer poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR), is an essential posttranslational modification carried out by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). While PAR levels are low under physiological conditions, they can transiently increase more than 100-fold upon induction of genotoxic stress. The accurate quantitation of cellular PAR with high sensitivity is of critical importance to understand the role of PARylation in cellular physiology and pathophysiology and to determine the pharmacodynamic efficiencies of clinically relevant PARP inhibitors, which represent a novel class of promising chemotherapeutics. Previously, we have developed a bioanalytical platform based on isotope dilution mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to quantify cellular PAR with unequivocal chemical specificity in absolute terms with femtomol sensitivity (Martello et al. ACS Chem Biol 8(7):1567-1575, 2013). This method enables the analysis of steady-state levels, as well as stress-induced levels of PAR in various biological systems including cell lines, mouse tissues, and primary human lymphocytes. It has a wide range of potential applications in basic research, as well as in drug development (Martello et al. ACS Chem Biol 8(7):1567-1575, 2013; Mangerich et al. Toxicol Lett 244:56-71, 2016). Here, we present an improved and adjusted version of the original protocol by Martello/Mangerich et al., which uses UPLC-MS/MS instrumentation.