PARP1 catalytic variants reveal branching and chain length-specific functions of poly(ADP-ribose) in cellular physiology and stress response
2020-10-09, Aberle, Lisa, Krüger, Annika, Reber, Julia M., Lippmann, Michelle, Schmalz, Michael, Trussina, Irmela R.E.A., Schlesiger, Sarah, Zubel, Tabea, Schütz, Karina, Marx, Andreas, Ferrando-May, Elisa, Bürkle, Alexander, Mangerich, Aswin
Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation regulates numerous cellular processes like genome maintenance and cell death, thus providing protective functions but also contributing to several pathological conditions. Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) molecules exhibit a remarkable heterogeneity in chain lengths and branching frequencies, but the biological significance of this is basically unknown. To unravel structure-specific functions of PAR, we used PARP1 mutants producing PAR of different qualities, i.e. short and hypobranched (PARP1\G972R), short and moderately hyperbranched (PARP1\Y986S), or strongly hyperbranched PAR (PARP1\Y986H). By reconstituting HeLa PARP1 knockout cells, we demonstrate that PARP1\G972R negatively affects cellular endpoints, such as viability, cell cycle progression and genotoxic stress resistance. In contrast, PARP1\Y986S elicits only mild effects, suggesting that PAR branching compensates for short polymer length. Interestingly, PARP1\Y986H exhibits moderate beneficial effects on cell physiology. Furthermore, different PARP1 mutants have distinct effects on molecular processes, such as gene expression and protein localization dynamics of PARP1 itself, and of its downstream factor XRCC1. Finally, the biological relevance of PAR branching is emphasized by the fact that branching frequencies vary considerably during different phases of the DNA damage-induced PARylation reaction and between different mouse tissues. Taken together, this study reveals that PAR branching and chain length essentially affect cellular functions, which further supports the notion of a 'PAR code'.
A mass spectrometric platform for the quantitation of sulfur mustard-induced nucleic acid adducts as mechanistically relevant biomarkers of exposure
2019-01, Zubel, Tabea, Hochgesand, Sabrine, John, Harald, Steinritz, Dirk, Schmidt, Annette, Bürkle, Alexander, Mangerich, Aswin
Despite its worldwide ban, the warfare agent sulfur mustard (SM) still represents a realistic threat, due to potential release in terroristic attacks and asymmetric conflicts. Therefore, the rigorous and quantitative detection of SM exposure is crucial for diagnosis, health risk assessment, and surveillance of international law. Alkylation adducts of nucleic acids can serve as valuable toxicologically relevant 'biomarkers of SM exposure'. Here, we developed a robust and versatile bioanalytical platform based on isotope dilution UPLC-MS/MS to quantify major SM-induced DNA and RNA adducts, as well as adducts induced by the monofunctional mustard 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide. We synthesized 15N/13C-labeled standards, which allowed absolute quantitation with full chemical specificity and subfemtomole sensitivities. DNA and RNA mono-alkylation adducts and crosslinks were carefully analyzed in a dose- and time-dependent manner in various matrices, including human cancer and primary cells, derived of the main SM-target tissues. Nucleic acid adducts were detected up to 6 days post-exposure, indicating long persistence, which highlights their toxicological relevance and proves their suitability as forensic and medical biomarkers. Finally, we investigated ex vivo-treated rat skin biopsies and human blood samples, which set the basis for the implementation into the method portfolio of Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons-designated laboratories to analyze authentic samples from SM-exposed victims.
PARP1 protects from benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide-induced replication stress and mutagenicity
2018-03, Fischer, Jan M.F., Zubel, Tabea, Jander, Kirsten, Fix, Jelena, Trussina, Irmela R.E.A., Gebhard, Daniel, Bergemann, Jörg, Bürkle, Alexander, Mangerich, Aswin
Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) is a complex and reversible posttranslational modification catalyzed by poly(ADP-ribose)polymerases (PARPs), which orchestrates protein function and subcellular localization. The function of PARP1 in genotoxic stress response upon induction of oxidative DNA lesions and strand breaks is firmly established, but its role in the response to chemical-induced, bulky DNA adducts is understood incompletely. To address the role of PARP1 in the response to bulky DNA adducts, we treated human cancer cells with benzo[a]pyrene 7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE), which represents the active metabolite of the environmental carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene [B(a)P], in nanomolar to low micromolar concentrations. Using a highly sensitive LC-MS/MS method, we revealed that BPDE induces cellular PAR formation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Consistently, PARP1 activity significantly contributed to BPDE-induced genotoxic stress response. On one hand, PARP1 ablation rescued BPDE-induced NAD+ depletion and protected cells from BPDE-induced short-term toxicity. On the other hand, strong sensitization effects of PARP inhibition and PARP1 ablation were observed in long-term clonogenic survival assays. Furthermore, PARP1 ablation significantly affected BPDE-induced S- and G2-phase transitions. Together, these results point towards unresolved BPDE-DNA lesions triggering replicative stress. In line with this, BPDE exposure resulted in enhanced formation and persistence of DNA double-strand breaks in PARP1-deficient cells as evaluated by microscopic co-localization studies of 53BP1 and γH2A.X foci. Consistently, an HPRT mutation assay revealed that PARP inhibition potentiated the mutagenicity of BPDE. In conclusion, this study demonstrates a profound role of PARylation in BPDE-induced genotoxic stress response with significant functional consequences and potential relevance with regard to B[a]P-induced cancer risks.
Analyzing structure–function relationships of artificial and cancer-associated PARP1 variants by reconstituting TALEN-generated HeLa PARP1 knock-out cells
2016-12-01, Rank, Lisa, Veith, Sebastian, Gwosch, Eva, Demgenski, Janine, Ganz, Magdalena, Vogel, Christopher, Fischbach, Arthur, Buerger, Stefanie, Fischer, Jan M.F., Zubel, Tabea, Stier, Anna, Renner, Christina, Schmalz, Michael, Beneke, Sascha, Gröttrup, Marcus, Bürkle, Alexander, Ferrando-May, Elisa, Mangerich, Aswin
Genotoxic stress activates PARP1, resulting in the post-translational modification of proteins with poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). We genetically deleted PARP1 in one of the most widely used human cell systems, i.e. HeLa cells, via TALEN-mediated gene targeting. After comprehensive characterization of these cells during genotoxic stress, we analyzed structure–function relationships of PARP1 by reconstituting PARP1 KO cells with a series of PARP1 variants. Firstly, we verified that the PARP1\E988K mutant exhibits mono-ADP-ribosylation activity and we demonstrate that the PARP1\L713F mutant is constitutively active in cells. Secondly, both mutants exhibit distinct recruitment kinetics to sites of laser-induced DNA damage, which can potentially be attributed to non-covalent PARP1–PAR interaction via several PAR binding motifs. Thirdly, both mutants had distinct functional consequences in cellular patho-physiology, i.e. PARP1\L713F expression triggered apoptosis, whereas PARP1\E988K reconstitution caused a DNA-damage-induced G2 arrest. Importantly, both effects could be rescued by PARP inhibitor treatment, indicating distinct cellular consequences of constitutive PARylation and mono(ADP-ribosyl)ation. Finally, we demonstrate that the cancer-associated PARP1 SNP variant (V762A) as well as a newly identified inherited PARP1 mutation (F304L\V762A) present in a patient with pediatric colorectal carcinoma exhibit altered biochemical and cellular properties, thereby potentially supporting human carcinogenesis. Together, we establish a novel cellular model for PARylation research, by revealing strong structure–function relationships of natural and artificial PARP1 variants.
The role of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases in manganese exposed Caenorhabditis elegans
2020-01, Neumann, Catherine, Baesler, Jessica, Steffen, Gereon, Nicolai, Merle Marie, Zubel, Tabea, Aschner, Michael, Bürkle, Alexander, Mangerich, Aswin, Schwerdtle, Tanja, Bornhorst, Julia
Background and Aim
When exceeding the homeostatic range, manganese (Mn) might cause neurotoxicity, characteristic of the pathophysiology of several neurological diseases. Although the underlying mechanism of its neurotoxicity remains unclear, Mn-induced oxidative stress contributes to disease etiology. DNA damage caused by oxidative stress may further trigger dysregulation of DNA-damage-induced poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation), which is of central importance especially for neuronal homeostasis. Accordingly, this study was designed to assess in the genetically traceable in vivo model Caenorhabditis elegans the role of PARylation as well as the consequences of loss of pme-1 or pme-2 (orthologues of PARP1 and PARP2) in Mn-induced toxicity.
A specific and sensitive isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed to quantify PARylation in worms. Next to monitoring the PAR level, pme-1 and pme-2 gene expression as well as Mn-induced oxidative stress was studied in wildtype worms and the pme deletion mutants.
Results and Conclusion
While Mn failed to induce PARylation in wildtype worms, toxic doses of Mn led to PAR-induction in pme-1-deficient worms, due to an increased gene expression of pme-2 in the pme-1 deletion mutants. However, this effect could not be observed at sub-toxic Mn doses as well as upon longer incubation times. Regarding Mn-induced oxidative stress, the deletion mutants did not show hypersensitivity. Taken together, this study characterizes worms to model PAR inhibition and addresses the consequences for Mn-induced oxidative stress in genetically manipulated worms.
A novel exposure system generating nebulized aerosol of sulfur mustard in comparison to the standard submerse exposure
2019-01, Tsoutsoulopoulos, Amelie, Siegert, Markus, John, Harald, Zubel, Tabea, Mangerich, Aswin, Schmidt, Annette, Mückter, Harald, Gudermann, Thomas, Thiermann, Horst, Popp, Tanja
Inhalation of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (SM) is associated with severe acute and long-term pulmonary dysfunctions and health effects. The still not completely elucidated molecular toxicology and a missing targeted therapy emphasize the need for further research. However, appropriate human data are extremely rare. In vivo animal experiments are often regarded as gold standard in toxicology but may exhibit significant differences compared to the human pulmonary anatomy and physiology. Thus, alternative in vitro exposure methods, adapted to the human in vivo situation by exposing cells at the air-liquid interface (ALI), are complimentary approaches at a cellular level. So far, it is unclear whether the enhanced experimental complexity of ALI exposure, that is potentially biologically more meaningful, is superior to submerged exposures which are typically performed. Aim of our study was the evaluation of an appropriate in vitro exposure system (CULTEX® Radial Flow System (RFS) equipped with an eFlow® membrane nebulizer) for the exposure of cultivated human lung cells (A549) with SM under ALI conditions. Cellular responses (i.e. cell viability) and formation of SM-specific DNA-adducts were investigated and compared between ALI and submerse SM exposures. Our results proved the safe applicability of our ALI exposure system setup. The aerosol generation and subsequent deposition at the ALI were stable and uniform. The technical CULTEX® RFS setup is based on ALI exposure with excess of aerosol from that only some is deposited on the cell layer. As expected, a lower cytotoxicity and DNA-adduct formation were detected when identical SM concentrations were used compared to experiments under submerged conditions. A distinct advantage of SM-ALI compared to SM-submerse exposures could not be found in our experiments. Though, the CULTEX® RFS was found suitable for SM-ALI exposures.
Kinetics of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, but not PARP1 itself, determines the cell fate in response to DNA damage in vitro and in vivo
2017-11-02, Schuhwerk, Harald, Bruhn, Christopher, Siniuk, Kanstantsin, Min, Wookee, Erener, Suheda, Krüger, Annika, Zubel, Tabea, Bürkle, Alexander, Mangerich, Aswin, Wang, Zhao-Qi
One of the fastest cellular responses to genotoxic stress is the formation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymers (PAR) by poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase 1 (PARP1, or ARTD1). PARP1 and its enzymatic product PAR regulate diverse biological processes, such as DNA repair, chromatin remodeling, transcription and cell death. However, the inter-dependent function of the PARP1 protein and its enzymatic activity clouds the mechanism underlying the biological response. We generated a PARP1 knock-in mouse model carrying a point mutation in the catalytic domain of PARP1 (D993A), which impairs the kinetics of the PARP1 activity and the PAR chain complexity in vitro and in vivo, designated as hypo-PARylation. PARP1D993A/D993A mice and cells are viable and show no obvious abnormalities. Despite a mild defect in base excision repair (BER), this hypo-PARylation compromises the DNA damage response during DNA replication, leading to cell death or senescence. Strikingly, PARP1D993A/D993A mice are hypersensitive to alkylation in vivo, phenocopying the phenotype of PARP1 knockout mice. Our study thus unravels a novel regulatory mechanism, which could not be revealed by classical loss-of-function studies, on how PAR homeostasis, but not the PARP1 protein, protects cells and organisms from acute DNA damage.
Comparison of Aristolochic acid I derived DNA adduct levels in human renal toxicity models
2019-05, Bastek, Heinke, Zubel, Tabea, Stemmer, Kerstin, Mangerich, Aswin, Beneke, Sascha, Dietrich, Daniel R.
Aristolochic acid (AA) dependent human nephropathy results either from environmental exposure to Aristolochiaceae plant subspecies or their use in traditional phytotherapy. The toxic components are structurally related nitrophenanthrene carboxylic acids, i.e. Aristolochic acid I (AAI) and II (AAII). AAI is considered to be the major cause of Aristolochic acid nephropathy, characterized by severe renal fibrosis and upper urothelial cancer. Following enzymatic activation in kidney and/or liver, AAI metabolites react with genomic DNA to form persistent DNA adducts with purines. To determine whether AAI can be activated in human renal cells to form DNA adducts, we exposed telomerase immortalized renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTEC/TERT1), the human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cell line, as well as primary human kidney cells (pHKC) to AAI in vitro. We modified an isotope dilution ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (ID-UPLC-MS/MS) based method for the quantification of dA-AAI adducts in genomic DNA. In addition, time dependent accumulation of adducts in renal cortex and bladder tissue from AAI/II treated Eker rats were used to validate the detection method. AAI-induced toxicity in human renal cells was determined by dA-AAI adduct quantification, the impact on cell viability, and NQO1 expression and activity. Our findings demonstrated adduct formation in all cell lines, although only pHKC and RPTEC/TERT1 expressed NQO1. The highest adduct formation was detected in pHKC despite low NQO1 expression, while we observed much lower adduct levels in NQO1-negative HEK293 cells. Adduct formation and decreased cell viability correlated only weakly. Therefore, our data suggested that i.) enzymes other than NQO1 could be at least equally important for AA bioactivation in human renal proximal tubule cells, and ii.) the suggested correlation between adduct levels and viability appears to be questionable.
Mass spectrometric analysis of sulfur mustard-induced biomolecular adducts : Are DNA adducts suitable biomarkers of exposure?
2018-09-01, Zubel, Tabea, Bürkle, Alexander, Mangerich, Aswin
The bi-functional chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (SM), whose release in asymmetric conflicts or terrorist attacks represents a realistic threat, induces several kinds of biomolecular adducts, including highly toxic DNA adducts. Isotope dilution liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (ID-LC-MS/MS) is considered the gold standard for highly accurate, precise, specific and sensitive quantification of DNA adducts in general. Recently, a number of LC-MS/MS approaches have been established to analyze SM-induced protein and DNA adducts in cell culture and rodent animal models. As DNA adducts are mechanism-based biomarkers for SM exposure, results from such studies provide a deeper understanding of the etiology of SM-induced pathologies, especially of long-term effects such as cancer formation. As a result, medical treatment of SM-exposed individuals might be improved. Yet, despite the progress that has been made during the last years, there is still a need for advanced methods of ID-LC-MS/MS for the detection and quantitation of SM adducts.
Quantitation of Poly(ADP-Ribose) by Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry
2017, Zubel, Tabea, Martello, Rita, Bürkle, Alexander, Mangerich, Aswin
Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation), i.e., the formation of the nucleic acid-like biopolymer poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR), is an essential posttranslational modification carried out by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). While PAR levels are low under physiological conditions, they can transiently increase more than 100-fold upon induction of genotoxic stress. The accurate quantitation of cellular PAR with high sensitivity is of critical importance to understand the role of PARylation in cellular physiology and pathophysiology and to determine the pharmacodynamic efficiencies of clinically relevant PARP inhibitors, which represent a novel class of promising chemotherapeutics. Previously, we have developed a bioanalytical platform based on isotope dilution mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to quantify cellular PAR with unequivocal chemical specificity in absolute terms with femtomol sensitivity (Martello et al. ACS Chem Biol 8(7):1567-1575, 2013). This method enables the analysis of steady-state levels, as well as stress-induced levels of PAR in various biological systems including cell lines, mouse tissues, and primary human lymphocytes. It has a wide range of potential applications in basic research, as well as in drug development (Martello et al. ACS Chem Biol 8(7):1567-1575, 2013; Mangerich et al. Toxicol Lett 244:56-71, 2016). Here, we present an improved and adjusted version of the original protocol by Martello/Mangerich et al., which uses UPLC-MS/MS instrumentation.