Differentiated Integration - One or Many? : Public Support for the Varieties of Differentiated Integration
2021, Leuffen, Dirk, de Blok, Lisanne, Schüssler, Julian, Heermann, Max, De Vries, Catherine E.
Using newly collected and so-far unpublished public opinion data on differentiated integration (DI), the research paper analyses the dimensionality of this concept, which has become increasingly prominent in the study of European integration. Factor analyses show that citizens care about two dimensions of differentiation. The first is linked to integration, the second to safeguarding national autonomy or sovereignty. Moreover, to validate previous findings on the Eurobarometer’s ‘two-speed Europe’ item, we run regression analyses on public support for different types or models of DI. Our analyses underline that citizens evaluate different types of DI differently – thus none of the classic models (e.g. ‘two-speed’, ‘core Europe’, or ‘à-la-carte’) allow for generalisation. As a practical implication, our study highlights that citizens’ support of DI strongly hinges on a fair design of DI.
Beds or bonds? : Conditional solidarity in the coronavirus crisis
2020, Koos, Sebastian, Leuffen, Dirk
The coronavirus crisis exacerbates inequality in the European Union. It gives rise to a critical debate about the future of Europe concerning a key question: In what way does the project of integration require a higher degree of European solidarity? To what extent are Europeans willing to help each other, and what kind of help are they willing to provide? The results from a recent survey of the German residential population, presented in this paper, offer a mixed picture: Whereas people strongly support medical solidarity, their willingness to support fi nancial redistribution is limited. As a consequence, it will be crucial to use ideational leadership to activate the potential for solidarity towards a united, viable Europe marked by limited inequality—especially with the German Council Presidency commencing on July 1st, 2020.
Sarkozy to Set New Course for French Foreign Policy
2007, Leuffen, Dirk, Möckli, Daniel
This paper describes how French President Nicolas Sarkozy is expected to introduce a fresh dynamism into and set a new course for French foreign policy. The author explains that at the European level, France will likely seek to strengthen the EU’s ability to act, in an effort that may also include more supranational elements. In his relationship with the US, Sarkozy should be in favor of renouncing traditional Gaullism and establishing a Franco-American partnership. The paper concludes that the transition in Paris should create an opportunity to intensify European and trans-Atlantic cooperation and to revitalize the West.
Member state equality and procedural fairness in differentiated integration : A republican perspective
2021, Leuffen, Dirk
This research paper builds on (internationalist) republicanism and claims that differentiated integration (DI) must be designed in a way that honours the principle of freedom as non-domination. When implemented in such a way, DI ensures rather than threatens the principle of member state–and thereby citizens–equality. I argue that democratic member states through their EU membership self-bind themselves to associative obligations that call for respecting the other member states’ equality and freedom. However, associative obligations do not apply to non-member states; on this ground, an important difference between internal and external differentiation can be established. Finally, the research paper argues–and illustrates with selected examples–that procedural justice or fairness can assure legitimacy of DI.
National Concerns and Individual Liberal Values Explain Support for Differentiated Integration in the European Union
2020, Leuffen, Dirk, Müller, Jana, Schüssler, Julian
Research on the extent and causes of differentiated integration in the European Union has burgeoned in recent years. However, we still know little about citizens’ attitudes towards the phenomenon. In this article, we argue that both country- and individual-level factors should affect support for differentiated integration. Specifically, building on the difference between exemptive and discriminatory differentiation, we expect citizens of Southern member states to stronger oppose and those of Northern and Eastern member states to support the concept of a ‘multi-speed Europe’. On the individual level, we expect general attitudes towards politics and society to matter. Survey data largely corroborates our expectations: Support for differentiated integration is indeed much lower in Southern Europe. On the individual level, we find that supporters are highly educated and marked by liberal-conservative attitudes. In contrast to general EU support, we do not find robust correlations with socio-demographic variables.
Betten oder Bonds? : Konditionale Solidarität in der Corona-Krise
2020, Koos, Sebastian, Leuffen, Dirk
Die Corona-Krise verschärft die Ungleichheit in der Europäischen Union (EU). Sie regt eine Debatte um die Zukunft Europas in einer zentralen Frage kritisch an: Inwiefern bedarf das Integrationsprojekt einer verstärkten innereuropäischen Solidarität? Wieviel und welche Art von Hilfe sind die EuropäerInnen bereit, wechselseitig zu leisten? Die hier vorgestellten Ergebnisse einer Umfrage unter der deutschen Wohnbevölkerung zeichnen ein gemischtes Bild: Während die Bereitschaft zu medizinischer Solidarität hoch ist, zeigt sich nur eine begrenzte Bereitschaft zur Unterstützung fi nanzieller Umverteilungsmaßnahmen. Dementsprechend gilt es, die Solidaritätspotentiale für ein geeintes, zukunftsfähiges Europa mit begrenzter Ungleichheit durch ideational leadership zu mobilisieren – insbesondere mit Blick auf die deutsche EU Ratspräsidentschaft in der zweiten Jahreshälfte 2020.