Crucial HSP70 co-chaperone complex unlocks metazoan protein disaggregation
2015, Nillegoda, Nadinath B., Kirstein, Janine, Szlachcic, Anna, Berynskyy, Mykhaylo, Stank, Antonia, Stengel, Florian, Arnsburg, Kristin, Gao, Xuechao, Scior, Annika, Aebersold, Ruedi, Guilbride, D. Lys, Wade, Rebecca C., Morimoto, Richard I., Mayer, Matthias P., Bukau, Bernd
Protein aggregates are the hallmark of stressed and ageing cells, and characterize several pathophysiological states1, 2. Healthy metazoan cells effectively eliminate intracellular protein aggregates3, 4, indicating that efficient disaggregation and/or degradation mechanisms exist. However, metazoans lack the key heat-shock protein disaggregase HSP100 of non-metazoan HSP70-dependent protein disaggregation systems5, 6, and the human HSP70 system alone, even with the crucial HSP110 nucleotide exchange factor, has poor disaggregation activity in vitro4, 7. This unresolved conundrum is central to protein quality control biology. Here we show that synergic cooperation between complexed J-protein co-chaperones of classes A and B unleashes highly efficient protein disaggregation activity in human and nematode HSP70 systems. Metazoan mixed-class J-protein complexes are transient, involve complementary charged regions conserved in the J-domains and carboxy-terminal domains of each J-protein class, and are flexible with respect to subunit composition. Complex formation allows J-proteins to initiate transient higher order chaperone structures involving HSP70 and interacting nucleotide exchange factors. A network of cooperative class A and B J-protein interactions therefore provides the metazoan HSP70 machinery with powerful, flexible, and finely regulatable disaggregase activity and a further level of regulation crucial for cellular protein quality control.
The nascent polypeptide-associated complex is a key regulator of proteostasis
2013-05-15, Kirstein-Miles, Janine, Scior, Annika, Deuerling, Elke, Morimoto, Richard
The adaptation of protein synthesis to environmental and physiological challenges is essential for cell viability. Here, we show that translation is tightly linked to the protein folding environment of the cell through the functional properties of the ribosome bound chaperone NAC (nascent
polypeptide-associated complex). Under non-stress conditions, NAC associates with ribosomes to promote translation and protein folding. When proteostasis is imbalanced, NAC relocalizes from a ribosome-associated state to protein aggregates in its role as a chaperone. This results in a functional depletion of NAC from the ribosome that diminishes
translational capacity and the flux of nascent proteins. Depletion of NAC from polysomes and re-localisation to protein aggregates is observed during ageing, in response to heat shock and upon expression of the highly aggregation-prone polyglutamine-expansion proteins and Ab-peptide. These results demonstrate that NAC has a central role as a proteostasis sensor to provide the cell with a regulatory feedback mechanism in which translational activity is also controlled by the folding state of the cellular proteome and the cellular response to stress.
A dual function for chaperones SSB–RAC and the NAC nascent polypeptide–associated complex on ribosomes
2010-04-05, Koplin, Ansgar, Preissler, Steffen, Ilina, Yulia, Koch, Miriam, Scior, Annika, Erhardt, Marc, Deuerling, Elke
The yeast Hsp70/40 system SSB–RAC (stress 70 B–ribosome-associated complex) binds to ribosomes and contacts nascent polypeptides to assist cotranslational folding. In this study, we demonstrate that nascent polypeptide–associated complex (NAC), another ribosome-tethered system, is functionally connected to SSB–RAC and the cytosolic Hsp70 network. Simultaneous deletions of genes encoding NAC and SSB caused conditional loss of cell viability under protein-folding stress conditions. Furthermore, NAC mutations revealed genetic interaction with a deletion of Sse1, a nucleotide exchange factor regulating the cytosolic Hsp70 network. Cells lacking SSB or Sse1 showed protein aggregation, which is enhanced by additional loss of NAC; however, these mutants differ in their potential client repertoire. Aggregation of ribosomal proteins and biogenesis factors accompanied by a pronounced deficiency in ribosomal particles and translating ribosomes only occurs in ssbΔ and nacΔssbΔ cells, suggesting that SSB and NAC control ribosome biogenesis. Thus, SSB–RAC and NAC assist protein folding and likewise have important functions for regulation of ribosome levels. These findings emphasize the concept that ribosome production is coordinated with the protein-folding capacity of ribosome-associated chaperones.
Not4-dependent translational repression is important for cellular protein homeostasis in yeast
2015, Preissler, Steffen, Reuther, Julia, Koch, Miriam, Scior, Annika, Bruderek, Michael, Frickey, Tancred, Deuerling, Elke
Translation of aberrant or problematic mRNAs can cause ribosome stalling which leads to the production of truncated or defective proteins. Therefore, cells evolved cotranslational quality control mechanisms that eliminate these transcripts and target arrested nascent polypeptides for proteasomal degradation. Here we show that Not4, which is part of the multifunctional Ccr4-Not complex in yeast, associates with polysomes and contributes to the negative regulation of protein synthesis. Not4 is involved in translational repression of transcripts that cause transient ribosome stalling. The absence of Not4 affected global translational repression upon nutrient withdrawal, enhanced the expression of arrested nascent polypeptides and caused constitutive protein folding stress and aggregation. Similar defects were observed in cells with impaired mRNA decapping protein function and in cells lacking the mRNA decapping activator and translational repressor Dhh1. The results suggest a role for Not4 together with components of the decapping machinery in the regulation of protein expression on the mRNA level and emphasize the importance of translational repression for the maintenance of proteome integrity.
Structural Analysis of the Ribosome-associated Complex (RAC) Reveals an Unusual Hsp70/Hsp40 Interaction
2010, Fiaux, Jocelyne, Horst, Janina, Scior, Annika, Preissler, Steffen, Koplin, Ansgar, Bukau, Bernd, Deuerling, Elke
Yeast Zuotin and Ssz are members of the conserved Hsp40 and Hsp70 chaperone families, respectively, but compared with canonical homologs, they atypically form a stable heterodimer termed ribosome-associated complex (RAC). RAC acts as co-chaperone for another Hsp70 to assist de novo protein folding. In this study, we identified the molecular basis for the unusual Hsp70/Hsp40 pairing using amide hydrogen exchange (HX) coupled with mass spectrometry and mutational analysis. Association of Ssz with Zuotin strongly decreased the conformational dynamics mainly in the C-terminal domain of Ssz, whereas Zuotin acquired strong conformational stabilization in its N-terminal segment. Deletion of the highly flexible N terminus of Zuotin abolished stable association with Ssz in vitro and caused a phenotype resembling the loss of Ssz function in vivo. Thus, the C-terminal domain of Ssz, the N-terminal extension of Zuotin, and their mutual stabilization are the major structural determinants for RAC assembly. We furthermore found dynamic changes in the J-domain of Zuotin upon complex formation that might be crucial for RAC co-chaperone function. Taken together, we present a novel mechanism for converting Zuotin and Ssz chaperones into a functionally active dimer.
Directed PCR-free engineering of highly repetitive DNA sequences
2011, Scior, Annika, Preissler, Steffen, Koch, Miriam, Deuerling, Elke
Background: Highly repetitive nucleotide sequences are commonly found in nature e.g. in telomeres, microsatellite DNA, polyadenine (poly(A)) tails of eukaryotic messenger RNA as well as in several inherited human disorders linked to trinucleotide repeat expansions in the genome. Therefore, studying repetitive sequences is of biological, biotechnological and medical relevance. However, cloning of such repetitive DNA sequences is challenging because specific PCR-based amplification is hampered by the lack of unique primer binding sites resulting in unspecific products.
Results: For the PCR-free generation of repetitive DNA sequences we used antiparallel oligonucleotides flanked by
restriction sites of Type IIS endonucleases. The arrangement of recognition sites allowed for stepwise and seamless elongation of repetitive sequences. This facilitated the assembly of repetitive DNA segments and open reading frames encoding polypeptides with periodic amino acid sequences of any desired length. By this strategy we
cloned a series of polyglutamine encoding sequences as well as highly repetitive polyadenine tracts. Such repetitive sequences can be used for diverse biotechnological applications. As an example, the polyglutamine sequences were expressed as His6-SUMO fusion proteins in Escherichia coli cells to study their aggregation behavior in vitro. The His6-SUMO moiety enabled affinity purification of the polyglutamine proteins, increased their solubility, and allowed controlled induction of the aggregation process. We successfully purified the fusions proteins and provide an example for their applicability in filter retardation assays.
Conclusion: Our seamless cloning strategy is PCR-free and allows the directed and efficient generation of highly
repetitive DNA sequences of defined lengths by simple standard cloning procedures.