Electronically Preresonant Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy of Weakly Fluorescing Chromophores
2023-07-05, Pruccoli, Andrea, Kocademir, Mustafa, Winterhalder, Martin, Zumbusch, Andreas
Stimulated Raman Scattering microscopy is an important imaging technique. Its broader application, however, is hampered by its comparatively low sensitivity. Using organic fluorophores, it has recently been demonstrated that, similar to spontaneous Raman microscopy, the sensitivity of stimulated Raman microscopy is increased by orders of magnitudes if electronic preresonances are exploited. In this Article, we show that this approach also works with low quantum yield chromophores. We investigate the relevant photophysics and discuss the background arising from preresonant excitation conditions. Applications of preresonant stimulated Raman scattering microscopy for the imaging of weakly fluorescing labels in fixed and live cells are demonstrated.
Preparation and Tracking of Oblate Core-Shell Polymethyl-Methacrylate Ellipsoids
2020-11-03, Voggenreiter, Markus, Roller, Jörg, Geiger, John David, Ebner, Lukas, Zumbusch, Andreas, Meijer, Janne-Mieke
Although single-particle level studies on prolate ellipsoidal colloids are relatively abundant, similar studies on oblate ellipsoids are rare because suitable model systems are scarcely available. Here, we present the preparation of monodisperse hard core-shell oblate ellipsoids that can be imaged and tracked in 3D with confocal laser scanning microscopy. Using a thermomechanical squeezing method, we transform spherical core-shell polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) particles into oblate ellipsoids. We show how the shape polydispersity as well as the aspect ratio of the obtained oblate ellipsoids can be controlled. In addition, we discuss how the core-shell geometry limits the range of aspect ratios because of the different viscoelastic properties of the cross-linked PMMA core and linear PMMA shell. We further demonstrate imaging of the core-shell oblate dispersions on a single-particle level in real space and time and the tracking of position and orientation using our recently developed tracking algorithm for anisotropic core-shell colloids. Our results thus provide the tools for the future investigation of the behavior of oblate ellipsoids, especially in dense suspensions.
Formation of nematic order in 3D systems of hard colloidal ellipsoids
2020-01-29, Roller, Jörg, Geiger, John David, Voggenreiter, Markus, Meijer, Janne-Mieke, Zumbusch, Andreas
Suspensions of hard ellipsoidal particles exhibit complex phase behavior as shown by theoretical predictions and simulations of phase diagrams. Here, we report quantitative confocal microscopy experiments of hard prolate colloidal ellipsoids with different aspect ratio a/b. We studied different volume fractions ϕ of ellipsoids in density and refractive index matched suspensions. Large 3D sample volumes were investigated and the positions as well as the orientations of all ellipsoids were extracted by image analysis routines. By evaluating the translational and orientational order in the system we determined the presence of isotropic and nematic phases. For ellipsoids with a/b = 2.0 we found that isotropic phases form at all ϕ, while ellipsoids with a/b = 7.0 formed nematic phases at high ϕ, as expected from theory and simulations. For a/b = 3.5 and a/b = 4.1, however, we observed the absence of long-range orientational order even at ϕ where nematic phases are expected. We show that local orientational order formed with the emergence of nematic precursors for a/b = 3.5 and short-ranged nematic domains for a/b = 4.1. Our results provide novel insight into the phase behavior and orientational order of ellipsoids with different aspect ratios.
Electronically preresonant stimulated Raman scattering microscopy in the visible
2023, Choorakuttil, Ashwin J. X., Pruccoli, Andrea, Winterhalder, Martin, Zirak, Peyman, Gudavičius, Dominykas, Martynaitis, Giedrius, Petrulionis, Dalius, Samsonas, Danielius, Kontenis, Lukas, Zumbusch, Andreas
We report an experimental scheme for stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy with excitation in the visible spectral region. This allows electronically preresonant (epr) SRS microscopy of a broad range of chromophores with sensitivities as low as 1 μM. Our experiment is based on two synchronously near-infrared pumped optical parametric oscillators (OPO). One of the outputs is modulated at a fourth of the repetition rate with a novel broadband electro-optical modulator. Using a combination of spectral focusing and tuning of the OPO, we show the recording of epr-SRS spectra over the whole range of molecular vibrations at a speed up to 20 times faster than classical wavelength tuning. The imaging capabilities of this setup are demonstrated with material scientific and cellular samples.
Live Cell Imaging of Enzymatic Turnover of an Adenosine 5′-Tetraphosphate Analog
2021-08-10, Bhat, Anayat, Li, Shuang, Hammler, Daniel, Winterhalder, Martin, Marx, Andreas, Zumbusch, Andreas
The hydrolysis of nucleotides is of paramount importance as an energy source for cellular processes. In addition, the transfer of phosphates from nucleotides onto proteins is important as a post-translational protein modification. Monitoring the enzymatic turnover of nucleotides therefore offers great potential as a tool to follow enzymatic activity. While a number of fluorescence sensors are known, so far, there are no methods available for the real-time monitoring of ATP hydrolysis inside live cells. We present the synthesis and application of a novel fluorogenic adenosine 5′-tetraphosphate (Ap4) analog suited for this task. Upon enzymatic hydrolysis, the molecule displays an increase in fluorescence intensity, which provides a readout of its turnover. We demonstrate how this can be used for monitoring cellular processes involving Ap4 hydrolysis. To this end, we visualized the enzymatic activity in live cells using confocal fluorescence microscopy of the Ap4 analog. Our results demonstrate that the Ap4 analog is hydrolyzed in lysosomes. We show that this approach is suited to visualize the lysosome distribution profiles within the live cell and discuss how it can be employed to gather information regarding autophagic flux.
Double modulation SRS and SREF microscopy : signal contributions under pre-resonance conditions
2020-09-30, Fimpel, Peter, Choorakuttil, Ashwin J. X., Pruccoli, Andrea, Ebner, Lukas, Tanaka, Shunji, Ozeki, Yasuyuki, Winterhalder, Martin, Zumbusch, Andreas
Abstract Pre-electronic resonance enhancement can increase the sensitivity of non-linear Raman microscopy to the single molecule detection limit. A major problem, however, is the generation of background signal due to unwanted linear and non-linear photophysical processes. In this work, we report the setup of a novel detection scheme for stimulated Raman scattering microspectroscopy based on the simultaneous modulation of pump and Stokes beam. Apart from allowing the parallel detection of stimulated Raman loss and gain (SRL and SRG), the setup gives access to the quantitative analysis of different sources of background signal. We report spectrally and temporally resolved measurements on three exemplary rhodamine dyes and derive the contributions of two-photon absorption and stimulated emission to their SRL, SRG, and stimulated Raman excited fluorescence signals. These results give guidelines for the further improvement of the sensitivity of non-linear Raman micospectroscopy under electronic pre-resonance conditions.
Imaging Arm Regeneration : Label-Free Multiphoton Microscopy to Dissect the Process in Octopus vulgaris
2022, Imperadore, Pamela, Galli, Roberta, Winterhalder, Martin, Zumbusch, Andreas, Uckermann, Ortrud
Cephalopod mollusks are endowed with an impressive range of features that have captured the attention of scientists from different fields, the imaginations of artists, and the interests of the public. The ability to spontaneously regrow lost or damaged structures quickly and functionally is among one of the most notable peculiarities that cephalopods possess. Microscopical imaging techniques represent useful tools for investigating the regenerative processes in several species, from invertebrates to mammals. However, these techniques have had limited use in cephalopods mainly due to the paucity of specific and commercially available markers. In addition, the commonly used immunohistochemical staining methods provide data that are specific to the antigens studied. New microscopical methods were recently applied to vertebrates to investigate regenerative events. Among them, multiphoton microscopy appears promising. For instance, it does not depend on species-related epitopes, taking advantage of the specific characteristics of tissues and allowing for its use in a species-independent way. Here, we illustrate the results obtained by applying this label-free imaging technique to the injured arm of Octopus vulgaris, a complex structure often subject to injury in the wild. This approach allowed for the characterization of the entire tissue arm architecture (muscular layers, nerve component, connective tissues, etc.) and elements usually hardly detectable (such as vessels, hemocytes, and chromatophores). More importantly, it also provided morpho-chemical information which helped decipher the regenerative phases after damage, from healing to complete arm regrowth, thereby appearing promising for regenerative studies in cephalopods and other non-model species.
Roadmap on bio-nano-photonics
2021, Herkert, Ediz, Slesiona, Nicole, Recchia, Martina Elisena, Deckert, Thomas, Garcia-Parajo, Maria F., Pruccoli, Andrea, Chitra Ragupathy, Imaiyan, Zumbusch, Andreas, Brida, Daniele, Borri, Paola
In the quest to decipher the chain of life from molecules to cells, the biological and biophysical questions being asked increasingly demand techniques that are capable of identifying specific biomolecules in their native environment, and can measure biomolecular interactions quantitatively, at the smallest possible scale in space and time, without perturbing the system under observation. The interaction of light with biomolecules offers a wealth of phenomena and tools that can be exploited to drive this progress. This Roadmap is written collectively by prominent researchers and encompasses selected aspects of bio-nano-photonics, spanning from the development of optical micro/nano-spectroscopy technologies for quantitative bioimaging and biosensing to the fundamental understanding of light–matter interaction phenomena with biomolecules at the nanoscale. It will be of interest to a wide cross-disciplinary audience in the physical sciences and life sciences.
Fluorescently Labelled ATP Analogues for Direct Monitoring of Ubiquitin Activation
2020-05-15, Hammler, Daniel, Stuber, Katrin, Offensperger, Fabian, Scheffner, Martin, Zumbusch, Andreas, Marx, Andreas
Simple and robust assays to monitor enzymatic ATP cleavage with high efficiency in real-time are scarce. To address this shortcoming, we developed novel fluorescently labelled adenosine tri-, tetra- and pentaphosphate analogues of ATP. The novel ATP analogues bear - in contrast to earlier reports - only a single acridone-based dye at the terminal phosphate group. The dye's fluorescence is quenched by the adenine component of the ATP analogue and is restored upon cleavage of the phosphate chain and dissociation of the dye from the adenosine moiety. Thereby the activity of ATP cleaving enzymes can be followed in real-time. We demonstrate this proficiency for ubiquitin activation by the ubiquitin-activating enzymes UBA1 and UBA6 which represents the first step in an enzymatic cascade leading to the covalent attachment of ubiquitin to substrate proteins, a process that is highly conserved from yeast to humans. We found that the efficiency to serve as cofactor for UBA1/UBA6 very much depends on the length of the phosphate chain of the ATP analogue: triphosphates are used poorly while pentaphosphates are most efficiently processed. Notably, the novel pentaphosphate-harbouring ATP analogue supersedes the efficiency of recently reported dual-dye labelled analogues and thus, is a promising candidate for broad applications.