Electronically Preresonant Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy of Weakly Fluorescing Chromophores
2023-07-05, Pruccoli, Andrea, Kocademir, Mustafa, Winterhalder, Martin, Zumbusch, Andreas
Stimulated Raman Scattering microscopy is an important imaging technique. Its broader application, however, is hampered by its comparatively low sensitivity. Using organic fluorophores, it has recently been demonstrated that, similar to spontaneous Raman microscopy, the sensitivity of stimulated Raman microscopy is increased by orders of magnitudes if electronic preresonances are exploited. In this Article, we show that this approach also works with low quantum yield chromophores. We investigate the relevant photophysics and discuss the background arising from preresonant excitation conditions. Applications of preresonant stimulated Raman scattering microscopy for the imaging of weakly fluorescing labels in fixed and live cells are demonstrated.
Imaging Arm Regeneration : Label-Free Multiphoton Microscopy to Dissect the Process in Octopus vulgaris
2022, Imperadore, Pamela, Galli, Roberta, Winterhalder, Martin, Zumbusch, Andreas, Uckermann, Ortrud
Cephalopod mollusks are endowed with an impressive range of features that have captured the attention of scientists from different fields, the imaginations of artists, and the interests of the public. The ability to spontaneously regrow lost or damaged structures quickly and functionally is among one of the most notable peculiarities that cephalopods possess. Microscopical imaging techniques represent useful tools for investigating the regenerative processes in several species, from invertebrates to mammals. However, these techniques have had limited use in cephalopods mainly due to the paucity of specific and commercially available markers. In addition, the commonly used immunohistochemical staining methods provide data that are specific to the antigens studied. New microscopical methods were recently applied to vertebrates to investigate regenerative events. Among them, multiphoton microscopy appears promising. For instance, it does not depend on species-related epitopes, taking advantage of the specific characteristics of tissues and allowing for its use in a species-independent way. Here, we illustrate the results obtained by applying this label-free imaging technique to the injured arm of Octopus vulgaris, a complex structure often subject to injury in the wild. This approach allowed for the characterization of the entire tissue arm architecture (muscular layers, nerve component, connective tissues, etc.) and elements usually hardly detectable (such as vessels, hemocytes, and chromatophores). More importantly, it also provided morpho-chemical information which helped decipher the regenerative phases after damage, from healing to complete arm regrowth, thereby appearing promising for regenerative studies in cephalopods and other non-model species.
A rigid coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering endoscope with high resolution and a large field of view
2018-09, Zirak, Peyman, Matz, Gregor, Messerschmidt, Bernhard, Schmitt, Michael, Popp, Jürgen, Uckermann, Ortrud, Galli, Roberta, Kirsch, Matthias, Winterhalder, Martin, Zumbusch, Andreas
Nonlinear optical endoscopy is an attractive technique for biomedical imaging since it promises to give access to high resolution imaging in vivo. Among the various techniques used for endoscopic contrast generation, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) is especially interesting. CARS endoscopy allows molecule specific imaging of unlabeled samples. In this contribution, we describe the design, implementation, and experimental characterization of a rigid, compact CARS endoscope with a spatial resolution of 750 nm over a field of view of roughly 250 μm. Omission of the relay optics and use of a gradient index lens specifically designed for this application allow one to realize these specifications in an endoscopic unit which is 2.2 mm wide over a length of 187 mm, making clinical applications during surgical interventions possible. Multimodal use of the endoscope is demonstrated with images of samples with neurosurgical relevance.
Water-soluble pyrrolopyrrole cyanine (PPCy) NIR fluorophores
2014, Wiktorowski, Simon, Rosazza, Christelle, Winterhalder, Martin, Daltrozzo, Ewald, Zumbusch, Andreas
Water-soluble derivatives of pyrrolopyrrole cyanines (PPCys) have been synthesized by a post-synthetic modification route. In highly polar media, these dyes are excellent NIR fluorophores. Labeling experiments show how these novel dyes are internalized into mammalian cells.
Electronically preresonant stimulated Raman scattering microscopy in the visible
2023, Choorakuttil, Ashwin J. X., Pruccoli, Andrea, Winterhalder, Martin, Zirak, Peyman, Gudavičius, Dominykas, Martynaitis, Giedrius, Petrulionis, Dalius, Samsonas, Danielius, Kontenis, Lukas, Zumbusch, Andreas
We report an experimental scheme for stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy with excitation in the visible spectral region. This allows electronically preresonant (epr) SRS microscopy of a broad range of chromophores with sensitivities as low as 1 μM. Our experiment is based on two synchronously near-infrared pumped optical parametric oscillators (OPO). One of the outputs is modulated at a fourth of the repetition rate with a novel broadband electro-optical modulator. Using a combination of spectral focusing and tuning of the OPO, we show the recording of epr-SRS spectra over the whole range of molecular vibrations at a speed up to 20 times faster than classical wavelength tuning. The imaging capabilities of this setup are demonstrated with material scientific and cellular samples.
Live Cell Imaging of Enzymatic Turnover of an Adenosine 5′-Tetraphosphate Analog
2021-08-10, Bhat, Anayat, Li, Shuang, Hammler, Daniel, Winterhalder, Martin, Marx, Andreas, Zumbusch, Andreas
The hydrolysis of nucleotides is of paramount importance as an energy source for cellular processes. In addition, the transfer of phosphates from nucleotides onto proteins is important as a post-translational protein modification. Monitoring the enzymatic turnover of nucleotides therefore offers great potential as a tool to follow enzymatic activity. While a number of fluorescence sensors are known, so far, there are no methods available for the real-time monitoring of ATP hydrolysis inside live cells. We present the synthesis and application of a novel fluorogenic adenosine 5′-tetraphosphate (Ap4) analog suited for this task. Upon enzymatic hydrolysis, the molecule displays an increase in fluorescence intensity, which provides a readout of its turnover. We demonstrate how this can be used for monitoring cellular processes involving Ap4 hydrolysis. To this end, we visualized the enzymatic activity in live cells using confocal fluorescence microscopy of the Ap4 analog. Our results demonstrate that the Ap4 analog is hydrolyzed in lysosomes. We show that this approach is suited to visualize the lysosome distribution profiles within the live cell and discuss how it can be employed to gather information regarding autophagic flux.
Beyond the borders : Biomedical applications of non-linear Raman microscopy
2015-07-15, Winterhalder, Martin, Zumbusch, Andreas
Raman spectroscopy offers great promise for label free imaging in biomedical applications. Its use, however, is hampered by the long integration times required and the presence of autofluorescence in many samples which outshines the Raman signals. In order to overcome these limitations, a variety of different non-linear Raman imaging techniques have been developed over the last decade. This review describes biomedical applications of these novel but already mature imaging techniques.
Influence of chain length and branching on poly(ADP-ribose)–protein interactions
2023, Löffler, Tobias, Krüger, Annika, Zirak Yousefabadi, Peyman, Winterhalder, Martin, Müller, Anna-Lena, Fischbach, Arthur, Mangerich, Aswin, Zumbusch, Andreas
Hundreds of proteins interact with poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) via multiple PAR interaction motifs, thereby regulating their physico-chemical properties, sub-cellular localizations, enzymatic activities, or protein stability. Here, we present a targeted approach based on fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to characterize potential structure-specific interactions of PAR molecules of defined chain length and branching with three prime PAR-binding proteins, the tumor suppressor protein p53, histone H1, and the histone chaperone APLF. Our study reveals complex and structure-specific PAR–protein interactions. Quantitative Kd values were determined and binding affinities for all three proteins were shown to be in the nanomolar range. We report PAR chain length dependent binding of p53 and H1, yet chain length independent binding of APLF. For all three PAR binders, we found a preference for linear over hyperbranched PAR. Importantly, protein- and PAR-structure-specific binding modes were revealed. Thus, while the H1-PAR interaction occurred largely on a bi-molecular 1:1 basis, p53—and potentially also APLF—can form complex multivalent PAR–protein structures. In conclusion, our study gives detailed and quantitative insight into PAR–protein interactions in a solution-based setting at near physiological buffer conditions. The results support the notion of protein and PAR-structure-specific binding modes that have evolved to fit the purpose of the respective biochemical functions and biological contexts.
Double modulation SRS and SREF microscopy : signal contributions under pre-resonance conditions
2020-09-30, Fimpel, Peter, Choorakuttil, Ashwin J. X., Pruccoli, Andrea, Ebner, Lukas, Tanaka, Shunji, Ozeki, Yasuyuki, Winterhalder, Martin, Zumbusch, Andreas
Abstract Pre-electronic resonance enhancement can increase the sensitivity of non-linear Raman microscopy to the single molecule detection limit. A major problem, however, is the generation of background signal due to unwanted linear and non-linear photophysical processes. In this work, we report the setup of a novel detection scheme for stimulated Raman scattering microspectroscopy based on the simultaneous modulation of pump and Stokes beam. Apart from allowing the parallel detection of stimulated Raman loss and gain (SRL and SRG), the setup gives access to the quantitative analysis of different sources of background signal. We report spectrally and temporally resolved measurements on three exemplary rhodamine dyes and derive the contributions of two-photon absorption and stimulated emission to their SRL, SRG, and stimulated Raman excited fluorescence signals. These results give guidelines for the further improvement of the sensitivity of non-linear Raman micospectroscopy under electronic pre-resonance conditions.
Nonlinear optical microscopy with vibrational contrast
2014, Winterhalder, Martin, Zumbusch, Andreas
Nonlinear optical techniques which provide vibrational contrast have gained increasing attention in microscopy during the last two decades. After outlining the potential of these techniques, we give a brief introduction to coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, stimulated Raman scattering and sum frequency generation and discuss their suitability for contrast generation in optical microscopy. The rapid developments in these fields during the last decade have resulted in many different applications. Three exemplary application areas will therefore be presented in the last part of this manuscript.