Annihilation of action potentials induces electrical coupling between neurons
2023-08-16, Schlötter, Moritz, Maret, Georg, Kleineidam, Christoph
Neurons generate and propagate electrical pulses called action potentials which annihilate on arrival at the axon terminal. We measure the extracellular electric field generated by propagating and annihilating action potentials and find that on annihilation, action potentials expel a local discharge. The discharge at the axon terminal generates an inhomogeneous electric field that immediately influences target neurons and thus provokes ephaptic coupling. Our measurements are quantitatively verified by a powerful analytical model which reveals excitation and inhibition in target neurons, depending on position and morphology of the source-target arrangement. Our model is in full agreement with experimental findings on ephaptic coupling at the well-studied Basket cell - Purkinje cell synapse. It is able to predict ephaptic coupling for any other synaptic geometry as illustrated by a few examples.
Magnetic-field effects on one-dimensional Anderson localization of light
2019, Schertel, Lukas, Irtenkauf, Oliver, Aegerter, Christof M., Maret, Georg, Aubry, Geoffroy J.
Transport of coherent waves in multiple-scattering media may exhibit fundamental, nonintuitive phenomena such as halt of diffusion by disorder called Anderson localization. For electromagnetic waves, this phenomenon was observed only in one and two dimensions so far. However, none of these experiments studied the contribution of reciprocal paths nor their manipulation by external fields. In order to weaken the effect of reciprocity of coherent wave transport on Anderson localization in one dimension, we studied light propagation through stacks of parallel Faraday-active glass slides exposed to magnetic fields up to 18 T. Measurements of light transmission statistics are presented and compared to one-dimensional (1D) transfer-matrix simulations. The latter reveals a self-organization of the polarization states in this system leading to a saturation of the Faraday rotation-induced reciprocity breaking, an increase of the localization length, and a decrease of transmission fluctuations when reciprocity is broken. This is confirmed experimentally for samples containing small numbers of slides while for larger samples a crossover from a 1D to a quasi-1D transport regime is found.
Free-Standing Photonic Glasses Fabricated in a Centrifugal Field
2017-09, Chen, Mengdi, Fischli, Danja, Schertel, Lukas, Aubry, Geoffroy J., Häusele, Benedikt, Polarz, Sebastian, Maret, Georg, Cölfen, Helmut
One efficient method to obtain disordered colloidal packing is to reduce the stability of colloidal particles by adding electrolytes to the colloidal dispersions. But the correct amount of additional electrolytes must be found empirically. Here, the effect of CaCl2 on polystyrene colloidal dispersions is studied, and a link between the amount of CaCl2 and the corresponding glassy colloidal structure is quantitatively built. A threshold concentration of CaCl2 is found by dynamic light scattering. When exceeding this threshold, different nanoparticle oligomers are observed in the dispersions by analytical ultracentrifugation. The second objective is to achieve free-standing samples, which is required for many optical measurements. A universal method is established, using a centrifugal field to produce robust samples by polymerizing coassembled hydrophilic monomers to form a network, which traps the glassy colloidal structures. Photon time of flight measurements shows that the CaCl2 concentration threshold should not be exceeded. Otherwise an optical shortcut may take place. Thus, the work provides a feasible universal route to prepare macroscopic free-standing photonic glasses from electrostatically stabilized nanoparticles, suitable for further optical investigation.
Resonant transport and near-field effects in photonic glasses
2017-05-22T09:50:44Z, Aubry, Geoffroy J., Schertel, Lukas, Chen, Mengdi, Weyer, Henrik, Aegerter, Christof M., Polarz, Sebastian, Cölfen, Helmut, Maret, Georg
A fundamental quantity in multiple scattering is the transport mean free path the inverse of which describes the scattering strength of a sample. In this paper, we emphasize the importance of an appropriate description of the effective refractive index neff in multiple light scattering to accurately describe the light transport in dense photonic glasses. Using neff as calculated by the energy-density coherent-potential approximation we are able to predict the transport mean free path of monodisperse photonic glasses. This model without any fit parameter is in qualitative agreement with numerical simulations and in fair quantitative agreement with spectrally resolved coherent backscattering measurements on new specially synthesized polystyrene photonic glasses. These materials exhibit resonant light scattering perturbed by strong near-field coupling, all captured within the model. Our model might be used to maximize the scattering strength of high index photonic glasses, which are a key in the search for Anderson localization of light in three dimensions.
Crossover from renormalized to conventional diffusion near the three-dimensional Anderson localization transition for light
2022, Cobus, Laura A., Maret, Georg, Aubry, Alexandre
We report on anomalous light transport in the strong scattering regime. Using low-coherence interferometry, we measure the reflection matrix of titanium dioxide powders, revealing crucial features of strong optical scattering which cannot be observed with transmission measurements: (i) a subdiffusive regime of transport at early times of flight that is a direct consequence of predominant recurrent scattering loops and (ii) a crossover to a conventional, but extremely slow, diffusive regime at long times. These observations support previous predictions that near-field coupling between scatterers prohibits Anderson localization of light in three-dimensional disordered media.
Tunable high-index photonic glasses
2019, Schertel, Lukas, Wimmer, Ilona, Besirske, Patricia, Aegerter, Christof M., Maret, Georg, Polarz, Sebastian, Aubry, Geoffroy J.
Materials with extreme photonic properties such as maximum diffuse reflectance, high albedo, or tunable band gaps are essential in many current and future photonic devices and coatings. While photonic crystals, periodic anisotropic structures, are well established, their disordered counterparts, photonic glasses (PGs), are less understood despite their most interesting isotropic photonic properties. Here, we introduce a controlled high index model PG system. It is made of monodisperse spherical TiO2 colloids to exploit strongly resonant Mie scattering for optimal turbidity. We report spectrally resolved combined measurements of turbidity and light energy velocity from large monolithic crack-free samples. This material class reveals pronounced resonances enabled by the possibility to tune both the refractive index of the extremely low polydisperse constituents and their radius. All our results are rationalized by a model based on the energy coherent potential approximation, which is free of any fitting parameter. Surprisingly good quantitative agreement is found even at high index and elevated packing fraction. This class of PGs may be the key to optimized tunable photonic materials and also central to understand fundamental questions such as isotropic structural colors, random lasing or strong light localization in 3D.
Pulse wave analysis with diffusing-wave spectroscopy
2017-07-01, Belau, Markus, Scheffer, Wolfgang, Maret, Georg
Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and thus at the origin of many deaths by e.g. heart attack or stroke. Hypertension is caused by many factors including an increase in arterial sti ff ness which leads to changes in pulse wave velocity and wave reflections. Those often result in an increased left ventricular load which may result in heart failure as well as an increased pulsatile pressure in the microcirculation leading to damage to blood vessels. In order to specifically treat the di ff erent causes of hypertension it is desirable to perform a pulse wave analysis as a complement to measurements of systolic and diastolic pressure by brachial cu ff sphygmomanometry. Here we show that Di ff using Wave Spectroscopy, a novel non-invasive portable tool, is able to monitor blood flow changes with a high temporal resolution. The measured pulse travel times give detailed information of the pulse wave blood flow profile.
The Structural Colors of Photonic Glasses
2019-05-17, Schertel, Lukas, Siedentop, Lukas, Meijer, Janne-Mieke, Keim, Peter, Aegerter, Christof M., Aubry, Geoffroy J., Maret, Georg
The color of materials usually originates from a combination of wavelength‐dependent absorption and scattering. Controlling the color without the use of absorbing dyes is of practical interest, not only because of undesired bleaching properties of dyes but also regarding minimization of environmental and health issues. Color control without dyes can be achieved by tuning the material's scattering properties in controlling size and spatial arrangement of scatterers. Herein, calibrated photonic glasses (PGs), which are isotropic materials made by random aggregation of nonabsorbing, monodisperse colloidal polystyrene spheres, are used to generate a wide spectral range of purely structural, angular‐independent colors. Experimental reflectance spectra for different sized spheres compare well with a recent theoretical model, which establishes the latter as a tool for color mapping in PGs. It allows to determine the range of visible colors accessible in PGs as function of size, packing fraction, and refractive index of scatterers. It also predicts color saturation on top of the white reflectance as function of the sample's optical thickness. Blue, green, and red are obtained even with low index, while saturated green, cyan, yellow, and magenta can be reached in higher index PGs over several orders of magnitude of sample thickness.
3D functional ultrasound imaging of pigeons
2018-12, Rau, Richard, Kruizinga, Pieter, Mastik, Frits, Belau, Markus, de Jong, Nico, Bosch, Johannes G., Scheffer, Wolfgang, Maret, Georg
Recent advances in ultrasound Doppler imaging have facilitated the technique of functional ultrasound (fUS) which enables visualization of brain-activity due to neurovascular coupling. As of yet, this technique has been applied to rodents as well as to human subjects during awake craniotomy surgery and human newborns. Here we demonstrate the first successful fUS studies on awake pigeons subjected to auditory and visual stimulation. To allow successful fUS on pigeons we improved the temporal resolution of fUS up to 20,000 frames per second with real-time visualization and continuous recording. We show that this gain in temporal resolution significantly increases the sensitivity for detecting small fluctuations in cerebral blood flow and volume which may reflect increased local neural activity. Through this increased sensitivity we were able to capture the elaborate 3D neural activity pattern evoked by a complex stimulation pattern, such as a moving light source. By pushing the limits of fUS further, we have reaffirmed the enormous potential of this technique as a new standard in functional brain imaging with the capacity to unravel unknown, stimulus related hemodynamics with excellent spatiotemporal resolution with a wide field of view.
Coherent multiple light scattering in Faraday active materials
2017-05-25, Schertel, Lukas, Aubry, Geoffroy J., Aegerter, Christof M., Maret, Georg
Wave propagation in multiple scattering media shows various kinds of coherent phenomena such as coherent backscattering [1, 2] or Anderson localization , both of which are intimately connected to the concept of reciprocity. Manipulating reciprocity in such media is a powerful tool to study these phenomena in experiments . Here we discuss the manipulation of reciprocity in reflection and transmission geometry for the case of light propagation in magneto-optical media. We show new experiments on coherent backscattering and speckle correlations in strongly scattering samples containing Faraday active materials (CeF3) with transport mean free path in the μm range, at low temperatures (T < 10 K) and high fields (B = 18 T). Under such conditions we observe the effect of a Faraday rotation saturation in multiple scattering measurements.