Pernau, Hans

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Comparison of cryogenic low-pass filters

2017-11, Thalmann, Marcel, Pernau, Hans, Strunk, Christoph, Scheer, Elke, Pietsch, Torsten

Low-temperature electronic transport measurements with high energy resolution require both effective low-pass filtering of high-frequency input noise and an optimized thermalization of the electronic system of the experiment. In recent years, elaborate filter designs have been developed for cryogenic low-level measurements, driven by the growing interest in fundamental quantum-physical phenomena at energy scales corresponding to temperatures in the few millikelvin regime. However, a single filter concept is often insufficient to thermalize the electronic system to the cryogenic bath and eliminate spurious high frequency noise. Moreover, the available concepts often provide inadequate filtering to operate at temperatures below 10 mK, which are routinely available now in dilution cryogenic systems. Herein we provide a comprehensive analysis of commonly used filter types, introduce a novel compact filter type based on ferrite compounds optimized for the frequency range above 20 GHz, and develop an improved filtering scheme providing adaptable broad-band low-pass characteristic for cryogenic low-level and quantum measurement applications at temperatures down to few millikelvin.

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Magnetotransport in atomic-size bismuth contacts

2014, Pernau, Hans, Pietsch, Torsten, Scheer, Elke

We report low-temperature transport experiments on atomic-size contacts of bismuth that are fabricated using the mechanically controlled break-junction technique at low temperatures. We observe stable contacts with conductance values at fractions of one conductance quantum G0 = 2e2/h, as is expected for systems with long Fermi wavelength. We defer two preferred conductance scales: the lower one is in the order of 0.015 G0 and can be attributed to singleatom Bi contact, while the higher one amounts to 0.15 G0, as indicated by the appearance of multiples of this value in the conductance histogram. Rich magneto-transport behaviour with significant changes in the magneto-conductance is found in the whole conductance range. Although for the pristine samples and large contacts with G > 5 G0, indications for Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations are present, the smallest contacts show pronounced conductance fluctuations that decay rapidly when a magnetic field is applied. Moreover, large variations are observed when a finite bias voltage is applied. These findings are interpreted as the transition from the diffusive to the ballistic and the ultra-quantum regime when lowering the contact size.