FDive : Learning Relevance Models Using Pattern-based Similarity Measures
2019, Dennig, Frederik L., Polk, Tom, Lin, Zudi, Schreck, Tobias, Pfister, Hanspeter, Behrisch, Michael
The detection of interesting patterns in large high-dimensional datasets is difficult because of their dimensionality and pattern complexity. Therefore, analysts require automated support for the extraction of relevant patterns. In this paper, we present FDive, a visual active learning system that helps to create visually explorable relevance models, assisted by learning a pattern-based similarity. We use a small set of user-provided labels to rank similarity measures, consisting of feature descriptor and distance function combinations, by their ability to distinguish relevant from irrelevant data. Based on the best-ranked similarity measure, the system calculates an interactive Self-Organizing Map-based relevance model, which classifies data according to the cluster affiliation. It also automatically prompts further relevance feedback to improve its accuracy. Uncertain areas, especially near the decision boundaries, are highlighted and can be refined by the user. We evaluate our approach by comparison to state-of-the-art feature selection techniques and demonstrate the usefulness of our approach by a case study classifying electron microscopy images of brain cells. The results show that FDive enhances both the quality and understanding of relevance models and can thus lead to new insights for brain research.
SocialOcean : Visual Analysis and Characterization of Social Media Bubbles
2018, Diehl, Alexandra, Hundt, Michael, Häußler, Johannes, Seebacher, Daniel, Chen, Siming, Cilasun, Nida, Keim, Daniel A., Schreck, Tobias
Social media allows citizens, corporations, and authorities to create, post, and exchange information. The study of its dynamics will enable analysts to understand user activities and social group characteristics such as connectedness, geospatial distribution, and temporal behavior. In this context, social media bubbles can be defined as social groups that exhibit certain biases in social media. These biases strongly depend on the dimensions selected in the analysis, for example, topic affinity, credibility, sentiment, and geographic distribution. In this paper, we present SocialOcean, a visual analytics system that allows for the investigation of social media bubbles. There exists a large body of research in social sciences which identifies important dimensions of social media bubbles (SMBs). While such dimensions have been studied separately, and also some of them in combination, it is still an open question which dimensions play the most important role in defining SMBs. Since the concept of SMBs is fairly recent, there are many unknowns regarding their characterization. We investigate the thematic and spatiotemporal characteristics of SMBs and present a visual analytics system to address questions such as: What are the most important dimensions that characterize SMBs? and How SMBs embody in the presence of specific events that resonate with them? We illustrate our approach using three different real scenarios related to the single event of Boston Marathon Bombing, and political news about Global Warming. We perform an expert evaluation, analyze the experts' feedback, and present the lessons learned.
Analysis and Comparison of Feature-Based Patterns in Urban Street Networks
2017-08-09, Shao, Lin, Mittelstädt, Sebastian, Goldblatt, Ran, Omer, Itzhak, Bak, Peter, Schreck, Tobias
Analysis of street networks is a challenging task, needed in urban planning applications such as urban design or transportation network analysis. Typically, different network features of interest are used for within- and between comparisons across street networks. We introduce StreetExplorer, a visual-interactive system for analysis and comparison of global and local patterns in urban street networks. The system uses appropriate similarity functions to search for patterns, taking into account topological and geometric features of a street network. We enhance the visual comparison of street network patterns by a suitable color-mapping and boosting scheme to visualize the similarity between street network portions and the distribution of network features. Together with experts from the urban morphology domain, we apply our approach to analyze and compare two urban street networks, identifying patterns of historic development and modern planning approaches, demonstrating the usefulness of StreetExplorer.
Visual Analytics and Similarity Search : Concepts and Challenges for Effective Retrieval Considering Users, Tasks, and Data
2017, Seebacher, Daniel, Häußler, Johannes, Stein, Manuel, Janetzko, Halldor, Schreck, Tobias
A major challenge of the contemporary information age is the overwhelming and increasing data amount, especially when looking for specific information. Searching for relevant information is no longer manually possible, but has to rely on automatic methods, specifically, similarity search. From a formal perspective, similarity search can be seen as the problem of finding entities, which are considered to be similar to a query with respect to certain describing features. The question which features or which weighted combination of features to use for a given query creates a need for semi-automatic methods to address the needs of diverse users. Furthermore, the quality of the results of a similarity search is more than effectiveness, measured by precision and recall. The user ideally needs to trust the results and understand how they were computed. We propose to apply Visual Analytics methodologies, for synergistic cooperation of user and algorithms, to integrate three key dimensions of similarity search: users, tasks, and data for effective search. However, there exists a gap in knowledge how user, task as well as the available data influence each other and the similarity search. In this concept paper, we envision how Visual Analytics can be used to tackle current challenges of similarity search.
Revealing the Invisible : Visual Analytics and Explanatory Storytelling for Advanced Team Sport Analysis
2018-10, Stein, Manuel, Breitkreutz, Thorsten, Häußler, Johannes, Seebacher, Daniel, Niederberger, Christoph, Schreck, Tobias, Grossniklaus, Michael, Keim, Daniel A., Janetzko, Halldor
The analysis of invasive team sports often concentrates on cooperative and competitive aspects of collective movement behavior. A main goal is the identification and explanation of strategies, and eventually the development of new strategies. In visual sports analytics, a range of different visual-interactive analysis techniques have been proposed, e.g., based on visualization using for example trajectories, graphs, heatmaps, and animations. Identifying suitable visualizations for a specific situation is key to a successful analysis. Existing systems enable the interactive selection of different visualization facets to support the analysis process. However, an interactive selection of appropriate visualizations is a difficult, complex, and time-consuming task. In this paper, we propose a four-step analytics conceptual workflow for an automatic selection of appropriate views for key situations in soccer games. Our concept covers classification, specification, explanation, and alteration of match situations, effectively enabling the analysts to focus on important game situations and the determination of alternative moves. Combining abstract visualizations with real world video recordings by Immersive Visual Analytics and descriptive storylines, we support domain experts in understanding key situations. We demonstrate the usefulness of our proposed conceptual workflow via two proofs of concept and evaluate our system by comparing our results to manual video annotations by domain experts. Initial expert feedback shows that our proposed concept improves the understanding of competitive sports and leads to a more efficient data analysis.
Tackling Similarity Search for Soccer Match Analysis : Multimodal Distance Measure and Interactive Query Definition
2018, Stein, Manuel, Janetzko, Halldor, Schreck, Tobias, Keim, Daniel A.
Analysts and coaches in soccer sports need to investigate large sets of past matches of opposing teams in short time to prepare their teams for upcoming matches. Thus, they need appropriate methods and systems supporting them in searching for soccer moves for comparison and explanation. For the search of similar soccer moves, established distance and similarity measures typically only take spatio-temporal features like shape and speed of movement into account. However, movement in invasive team sports such as soccer, includes much more than just a sequence of spatial locations. We survey the current state-of-the-art in trajectory distance measures and subsequently propose an enhanced similarity measure integrating spatial, player, event as well as high level context such as pressure into the process of similarity search. We present a visual search system supporting analysts in interactively identifying similar contextual enhanced soccer moves in a dataset containing more than 60 soccer matches. Our approach is evaluated by several expert studies. The results of the evaluation reveal the large potential of enhanced similarity measures in the future.
Dynamic Visual Abstraction of Soccer Movement
2017-07-04, Sacha, Dominik, Al-Masoudi, Feeras, Stein, Manuel, Schreck, Tobias, Keim, Daniel A., Andrienko, Gennady, Janetzko, Halldor
Trajectory-based visualization of coordinated movement data within a bounded area, such as player and ball movement within a soccer pitch, can easily result in visual crossings, overplotting, and clutter. Trajectory abstraction can help to cope with these issues, but it is a challenging problem to select the right level of abstraction (LoA) for a given data set and analysis task. We present a novel dynamic approach that combines trajectory simplification and clustering techniques with the goal to support interpretation and understanding of movement patterns. Our technique provides smooth transitions between different abstraction types that can be computed dynamically and on-the-fly. This enables the analyst to effectively navigate and explore the space of possible abstractions in large trajectory data sets. Additionally, we provide a proof of concept for supporting the analyst in determining the LoA semi-automatically with a recommender system. Our approach is illustrated and evaluated by case studies, quantitative measures, and expert feedback. We further demonstrate that it allows analysts to solve a variety of analysis tasks in the domain of soccer.
Visual Analysis of Urban Traffic Data based on High-Resolution and High-Dimensional Environmental Sensor Data
2018, Häußler, Johannes, Stein, Manuel, Seebacher, Daniel, Janetzko, Halldor, Schreck, Tobias, Keim, Daniel A.
Urbanization is an increasing global trend resulting in a strong increase in public and individual transportation needs. Accordingly, a major challenge for traffic and urban planners is the design of sustainable mobility concepts to maintain and increase the long-term health of humans by reducing environmental pollution. Recent developments in sensor technology allow the precise tracking of vehicle sensor information, allowing a closer and more in-depth analysis of traffic data. We propose a visual analytics system for the exploration of environmental factors in these high-resolution and high-dimensional mobility sensor data. Additionally, we introduce an interactive visual logging approach to enable experts to cope with complex interactive analysis processes and the problem of the reproducibility of results. The usefulness of our approach is demonstrated via two expert studies with two domain experts from the field of environment-related projects and urban traffic planning.
Pattern Trails : Visual Analysis of Pattern Transitions in Subspaces
2017, Jäckle, Dominik, Blumenschein, Michael, Behrisch, Michael, Keim, Daniel A., Schreck, Tobias
Subspace analysis methods have gained interest for identifying patterns in subspaces of high-dimensional data. Existing techniques allow to visualize and compare patterns in subspaces. However, many subspace analysis methods produce an abundant amount of patterns, which often remain redundant and are difficult to relate. Creating effective layouts for comparison of subspace patterns remains challenging. We introduce Pattern Trails, a novel approach for visually ordering and comparing subspace patterns. Central to our approach is the notion of pattern transitions as an interpretable structure imposed to order and compare patterns between subspaces. The basic idea is to visualize projections of subspaces side-by-side, and indicate changes between adjacent patterns in the subspaces by a linked representation, hence introducing pattern transitions. Our contributions comprise a systematization for how pairs of subspace patterns can be compared, and how changes can be interpreted in terms of pattern transitions. We also contribute a technique for visual subspace analysis based on a data-driven similarity measure between subspace representations. This measure is useful to order the patterns, and interactively group subspaces to reduce redundancy. We demonstrate the usefulness of our approach by application to several use cases, indicating that data can be meaningfully ordered and interpreted in terms of pattern transitions.