Where to go : Computational and visual what-if analyses in soccer
2019-12-17, Stein, Manuel, Seebacher, Daniel, Marcelino, Rui, Schreck, Tobias, Grossniklaus, Michael, Keim, Daniel A., Janetzko, Halldor
To prepare their teams for upcoming matches, analysts in professional soccer watch and manually annotate up to three matches a day. When annotating matches, domain experts try to identify and improve suboptimal movements based on intuition and professional experience. The high amount of matches needing to be analysed manually result in a tedious and time-consuming process, and results may be subjective. We propose an automatic approach for the realisation of effective region-based what-if analyses in soccer. Our system covers the automatic detection of region-based faulty movement behaviour, as well as the automatic suggestion of possible improved alternative movements. As we show, our approach effectively supports analysts and coaches investigating matches by speeding up previously time-consuming work. We enable domain experts to include their domain knowledge in the analysis process by allowing to interactively adjust suggested improved movement, as well as its implications on region control. We demonstrate the usefulness of our proposed approach via an expert study with three invited domain experts, one being head coach from the first Austrian soccer league. As our results show that experts most often agree with the suggested player movement (83%), our proposed approach enhances the analytical capabilities in soccer and supports a more efficient analysis.
SOMFlow : Guided Exploratory Cluster Analysis with Self-Organizing Maps and Analytic Provenance
2018-01, Sacha, Dominik, Kraus, Matthias, Bernard, Jürgen, Behrisch, Michael, Schreck, Tobias, Asano, Yuki, Keim, Daniel A.
Clustering is a core building block for data analysis, aiming to extract otherwise hidden structures and relations from raw datasets, such as particular groups that can be effectively related, compared, and interpreted. A plethora of visual-interactive cluster analysis techniques has been proposed to date, however, arriving at useful clusterings often requires several rounds of user interactions to fine-tune the data preprocessing and algorithms. We present a multi-stage Visual Analytics (VA) approach for iterative cluster refinement together with an implementation (SOMFlow) that uses Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) to analyze time series data. It supports exploration by offering the analyst a visual platform to analyze intermediate results, adapt the underlying computations, iteratively partition the data, and to reflect previous analytical activities. The history of previous decisions is explicitly visualized within a flow graph, allowing to compare earlier cluster refinements and to explore relations. We further leverage quality and interestingness measures to guide the analyst in the discovery of useful patterns, relations, and data partitions. We conducted two pair analytics experiments together with a subject matter expert in speech intonation research to demonstrate that the approach is effective for interactive data analysis, supporting enhanced understanding of clustering results as well as the interactive process itself.
Magnostics : Image-Based Search of Interesting Matrix Views for Guided Network Exploration
2017-01, Behrisch, Michael, Bach, Benjamin, Blumenschein, Michael, Delz, Michael, von Rüden, Laura, Fekete, Jean-Daniel, Schreck, Tobias
In this work we address the problem of retrieving potentially interesting matrix views to support the exploration of networks. We introduce Matrix Diagnostics (or Magnostics), following in spirit related approaches for rating and ranking other visualization techniques, such as Scagnostics for scatter plots. Our approach ranks matrix views according to the appearance of specific visual patterns, such as blocks and lines, indicating the existence of topological motifs in the data, such as clusters, bi-graphs, or central nodes. Magnostics can be used to analyze, query, or search for visually similar matrices in large collections, or to assess the quality of matrix reordering algorithms. While many feature descriptors for image analyzes exist, there is no evidence how they perform for detecting patterns in matrices. In order to make an informed choice of feature descriptors for matrix diagnostics, we evaluate 30 feature descriptors-27 existing ones and three new descriptors that we designed specifically for MAGNOSTICS-with respect to four criteria: pattern response, pattern variability, pattern sensibility, and pattern discrimination. We conclude with an informed set of six descriptors as most appropriate for Magnostics and demonstrate their application in two scenarios; exploring a large collection of matrices and analyzing temporal networks.
Matrix Reordering Methods for Table and Network Visualization
2016, Behrisch, Michael, Bach, Benjamin, Henry Riche, Nathalie, Schreck, Tobias, Fekete, Jean-Daniel
This survey provides a description of algorithms to reorder visual matrices of tabular data and adjacency matrix of Networks. The goal of this survey is to provide a comprehensive list of reordering algorithms published in different fields such as statistics, bioinformatics, or graph theory. While several of these algorithms are described in publications and others are available in software libraries and programs, there is little awareness of what is done across all fields. Our survey aims at describing these reordering algorithms in a unified manner to enable a wide audience to understand their differences and subtleties. We organize this corpus in a consistent manner, independently of the application or research field. We also provide practical guidance on how to select appropriate algorithms depending on the structure and size of the matrix to reorder, and point to implementations when available.
Urban Mobility Analysis With Mobile Network Data : A Visual Analytics Approach
2018-05, Senaratne, Hansi, Mueller, Manuel, Behrisch, Michael, Lalanne, Felipe, Bustos-Jimenez, Javier, Schneidewind, Jörn, Keim, Daniel A., Schreck, Tobias
Urban planning and intelligent transportation management are facing key challenges in today's ever more urbanized world. Providing the right tools to city planners is crucial to cope with these challenges. Data collected from citizens' mobile communication can be used as the foundation for such tools. These kinds of data can facilitate various analysis tasks, such as the extraction of human movement patterns or determining the urban dynamics of a city. City planners can closely monitor such patterns based on which strategic decisions can be taken to improve a city's infrastructure. In this paper, we introduce a novel visual analytics approach for pattern exploration and search in global system for mobile communications mobile networks. We define geospatial and matrix representations of data, which can be interactively navigated. The approach integrates data visualization with suitable data analysis algorithms, allowing to spatially and temporally compare mobile usage, identify regularities, as well as anomalies in daily mobility patterns across regions and user groups. As an extension to our visual analytics approach, we further introduce space-time prisms with uncertain markers to visually analyze the uncertainty of urban mobility patterns.
Quality Metrics for Information Visualization
2018, Behrisch, Michael, Blumenschein, Michael, Kim, Naam Wook, El-Assady, Mennatallah, Fuchs, Johannes, Seebacher, Daniel, Diehl, Alexandra, Brandes, Ulrik, Schreck, Tobias, Weiskopf, Daniel, Keim, Daniel A.
The visualization community has developed to date many intuitions and understandings of how to judge the quality of views in visualizing data. The computation of a visualization’s quality and usefulness ranges from measuring clutter and overlap, up to the existence and perception of speciﬁc (visual) patterns. This survey attempts to report, categorize and unify the diverse understandings and aims to establish a common vocabulary that will enable a wide audience to understand their differences and subtleties. For this purpose, we present a commonly applicable quality metric formalization that should detail and relate all constituting parts of a quality metric. We organize our corpus of reviewed research papers along the data types established in the information visualization community: multi- and high-dimensional, relational, sequential, geospatial and text data. For each data type, we select the visualization subdomains in which quality metrics are an active research ﬁeld and report their ﬁndings, reason on the underlying concepts, describe goals and outline the constraints and requirements. One central goal of this survey is to provide guidance on future research opportunities for the ﬁeld and outline how different visualization communities could beneﬁt from each other by applying or transferring knowledge to their respective subdomain. Additionally, we aim to motivate the visualization community to compare computed measures to the perception of humans.
Visual analytics for concept exploration in subspaces of patient groups : Making sense of complex datasets with the Doctor-in-the-loop
2016-12, Blumenschein, Michael, Böhm, Dominic, Sturm, Werner, Sedlmair, Michael, Schreck, Tobias, Ullrich, Torsten, Keim, Daniel A., Majnaric, Ljiljana, Holzinger, Andreas
Medical doctors and researchers in bio-medicine are increasingly confronted with complex patient data, posing new and difficult analysis challenges. These data are often comprising high-dimensional descriptions of patient conditions and measurements on the success of certain therapies. An important analysis question in such data is to compare and correlate patient conditions and therapy results along with combinations of dimensions. As the number of dimensions is often very large, one needs to map them to a smaller number of relevant dimensions to be more amenable for expert analysis. This is because irrelevant, redundant, and conflicting dimensions can negatively affect effectiveness and efficiency of the analytic process (the so-called curse of dimensionality). However, the possible mappings from high- to low-dimensional spaces are ambiguous. For example, the similarity between patients may change by considering different combinations of relevant dimensions (subspaces). We demonstrate the potential of subspace analysis for the interpretation of high-dimensional medical data. Specifically, we present SubVIS, an interactive tool to visually explore subspace clusters from different perspectives, introduce a novel analysis workflow, and discuss future directions for high-dimensional (medical) data analysis and its visual exploration. We apply the presented workflow to a real-world dataset from the medical domain and show its usefulness with a domain expert evaluation.
Bring It to the Pitch : Combining Video and Movement Data to Enhance Team Sport Analysis
2018-01, Stein, Manuel, Janetzko, Halldor, Lamprecht, Andreas, Breitkreutz, Thorsten, Zimmermann, Philip, Goldlücke, Bastian, Schreck, Tobias, Andrienko, Gennady, Grossniklaus, Michael, Keim, Daniel A.
Analysts in professional team sport regularly perform analysis to gain strategic and tactical insights into player and team behavior. Goals of team sport analysis regularly include identification of weaknesses of opposing teams, or assessing performance and improvement potential of a coached team. Current analysis workflows are typically based on the analysis of team videos. Also, analysts can rely on techniques from Information Visualization, to depict e.g., player or ball trajectories. However, video analysis is typically a time-consuming process, where the analyst needs to memorize and annotate scenes. In contrast, visualization typically relies on an abstract data model, often using abstract visual mappings, and is not directly linked to the observed movement context anymore. We propose a visual analytics system that tightly integrates team sport video recordings with abstract visualization of underlying trajectory data. We apply appropriate computer vision techniques to extract trajectory data from video input. Furthermore, we apply advanced trajectory and movement analysis techniques to derive relevant team sport analytic measures for region, event and player analysis in the case of soccer analysis. Our system seamlessly integrates video and visualization modalities, enabling analysts to draw on the advantages of both analysis forms. Several expert studies conducted with team sport analysts indicate the effectiveness of our integrated approach.
How to Make Sense of Team Sport Data : From Acquisition to Data Modeling and Research Aspects
2017-03, Stein, Manuel, Janetzko, Halldor, Seebacher, Daniel, Jäger, Alexander, Nagel, Manuel, Hölsch, Jürgen, Kosub, Sven, Schreck, Tobias, Keim, Daniel A., Grossniklaus, Michael
Automatic and interactive data analysis is instrumental in making use of increasing amounts of complex data. Owing to novel sensor modalities, analysis of data generated in professional team sport leagues such as soccer, baseball, and basketball has recently become of concern, with potentially high commercial and research interest. The analysis of team ball games can serve many goals, e.g., in coaching to understand effects of strategies and tactics, or to derive insights improving performance. Also, it is often decisive to trainers and analysts to understand why a certain movement of a player or groups of players happened, and what the respective influencing factors are. We consider team sport as group movement including collaboration and competition of individuals following specific rule sets. Analyzing team sports is a challenging problem as it involves joint understanding of heterogeneous data perspectives, including high-dimensional, video, and movement data, as well as considering team behavior and rules (constraints) given in the particular team sport. We identify important components of team sport data, exemplified by the soccer case, and explain how to analyze team sport data in general. We identify challenges arising when facing these data sets and we propose a multi-facet view and analysis including pattern detection, context-aware analysis, and visual explanation. We also present applicable methods and technologies covering the heterogeneous aspects in team sport data.
Director's Cut : Analysis and Annotation of Soccer Matches
2016-09, Stein, Manuel, Janetzko, Halldor, Breitkreutz, Thorsten, Seebacher, Daniel, Schreck, Tobias, Grossniklaus, Michael, Couzin, Iain D., Keim, Daniel A.
For development and alignment of tactics and strategies, professional soccer analysts spend up to three working days manually analyzing and annotating professional soccer matches. In an effort to improve soccer player and match analysis, a visual-interactive and data-analysis support system focuses on key situations by using rule-based filtering and automatically annotating key types of soccer match elements. The authors evaluate the proposed approach by analyzing real-world soccer matches and several expert studies. Quantitative measures show the proposed methods can significantly outperform naive solutions.