Investigating the Sketchplan : A Novel Way of Identifying Tactical Behavior in Massive Soccer Datasets
2023, Seebacher, Daniel, Polk, Tom, Janetzko, Halldor, Keim, Daniel A., Schreck, Tobias, Stein, Manuel
Coaches and analysts prepare for upcoming matches by identifying common patterns in the positioning and movement of the competing teams in specific situations. Existing approaches in this domain typically rely on manual video analysis and formation discussion using whiteboards; or expert systems that rely on state-of-the-art video and trajectory visualization techniques and advanced user interaction. We bridge the gap between these approaches by contributing a light-weight, simplified interaction and visualization system, which we conceptualized in an iterative design study with the coaching team of a European first league soccer team. Our approach is walk-up usable by all domain stakeholders, and at the same time, can leverage advanced data retrieval and analysis techniques: a virtual magnetic tactic-board. Users place and move digital magnets on a virtual tactic-board, and these interactions get translated to spatio-temporal queries, used to retrieve relevant situations from massive team movement data. Despite such seemingly imprecise query input, our approach is highly usable, supports quick user exploration, and retrieval of relevant results via query relaxation. Appropriate simplified result visualization supports in-depth analyses to explore team behavior, such as formation detection, movement analysis, and what-if analysis. We evaluated our approach with several experts from European first league soccer clubs. The results show that our approach makes the complex analytical processes needed for the identification of tactical behavior directly accessible to domain experts for the first time, demonstrating our support of coaches in preparation for future encounters.
The Role of Interactive Visualization in Fostering Trust in AI
2021, Beauxis-Aussalet, Emma, Behrisch, Michael, Borgo, Rita, Chau, Duen Horng, Collins, Christopher, El-Assady, Mennatallah, Keim, Daniel A., Oelke, Daniela, Schreck, Tobias, Strobelt, Hendrik
The increasing use of artificial intelligence (AI) technologies across application domains has prompted our society to pay closer attention to AI's trustworthiness, fairness, interpretability, and accountability. In order to foster trust in AI, it is important to consider the potential of interactive visualization, and how such visualizations help build trust in AI systems. This manifesto discusses the relevance of interactive visualizations and makes the following four claims: i) trust is not a technical problem, ii) trust is dynamic, iii) visualization cannot address all aspects of trust, and iv) visualization is crucial for human agency in AI.
Urban Mobility Analysis With Mobile Network Data : A Visual Analytics Approach
2018-05, Senaratne, Hansi, Mueller, Manuel, Behrisch, Michael, Lalanne, Felipe, Bustos-Jimenez, Javier, Schneidewind, Jörn, Keim, Daniel A., Schreck, Tobias
Urban planning and intelligent transportation management are facing key challenges in today's ever more urbanized world. Providing the right tools to city planners is crucial to cope with these challenges. Data collected from citizens' mobile communication can be used as the foundation for such tools. These kinds of data can facilitate various analysis tasks, such as the extraction of human movement patterns or determining the urban dynamics of a city. City planners can closely monitor such patterns based on which strategic decisions can be taken to improve a city's infrastructure. In this paper, we introduce a novel visual analytics approach for pattern exploration and search in global system for mobile communications mobile networks. We define geospatial and matrix representations of data, which can be interactively navigated. The approach integrates data visualization with suitable data analysis algorithms, allowing to spatially and temporally compare mobile usage, identify regularities, as well as anomalies in daily mobility patterns across regions and user groups. As an extension to our visual analytics approach, we further introduce space-time prisms with uncertain markers to visually analyze the uncertainty of urban mobility patterns.
Quality Metrics for Information Visualization
2018, Behrisch, Michael, Blumenschein, Michael, Kim, Naam Wook, El-Assady, Mennatallah, Fuchs, Johannes, Seebacher, Daniel, Diehl, Alexandra, Brandes, Ulrik, Schreck, Tobias, Weiskopf, Daniel, Keim, Daniel A.
The visualization community has developed to date many intuitions and understandings of how to judge the quality of views in visualizing data. The computation of a visualization’s quality and usefulness ranges from measuring clutter and overlap, up to the existence and perception of speciﬁc (visual) patterns. This survey attempts to report, categorize and unify the diverse understandings and aims to establish a common vocabulary that will enable a wide audience to understand their differences and subtleties. For this purpose, we present a commonly applicable quality metric formalization that should detail and relate all constituting parts of a quality metric. We organize our corpus of reviewed research papers along the data types established in the information visualization community: multi- and high-dimensional, relational, sequential, geospatial and text data. For each data type, we select the visualization subdomains in which quality metrics are an active research ﬁeld and report their ﬁndings, reason on the underlying concepts, describe goals and outline the constraints and requirements. One central goal of this survey is to provide guidance on future research opportunities for the ﬁeld and outline how different visualization communities could beneﬁt from each other by applying or transferring knowledge to their respective subdomain. Additionally, we aim to motivate the visualization community to compare computed measures to the perception of humans.
Multiscale Visualization : A Structured Literature Analysis
2022, Cakmak, Eren, Jäckle, Dominik, Schreck, Tobias, Keim, Daniel A., Fuchs, Johannes
Multiscale visualizations are typically used to analyze multiscale processes and data in various application domains, such as the visual exploration of hierarchical genome structures in molecular biology. However, creating such multiscale visualizations remains challenging due to the plethora of existing work and the expression ambiguity in visualization research. Up to today, there has been little work to compare and categorize multiscale visualizations to understand their design practices. In this work, we present a structured literature analysis to provide an overview of common design practices in multiscale visualization research. We systematically reviewed and categorized 122 published journal or conference papers between 1995 and 2020. We organized the reviewed papers in a taxonomy that reveals common design factors. Researchers and practitioners can use our taxonomy to explore existing work to create new multiscale navigation and visualization techniques. Based on the reviewed papers, we examine research trends and highlight open research challenges.
MotionGlyphs : Visual Abstraction of Spatio-Temporal Networks in Collective Animal Behavior
2020, Cakmak, Eren, Schäfer, Hanna, Buchmüller, Juri F., Fuchs, Johannes, Schreck, Tobias, Jordan, Alex, Keim, Daniel A.
Domain experts for collective animal behavior analyze relationships between single animal movers and groups of animalsover time and space to detect emergent group properties. A common way to interpret this type of data is to visualize it as aspatio-temporal network. Collective behavior data sets are often large, and may hence result in dense and highly connectednode-link diagrams, resulting in issues of node-overlap and edge clutter. In this design study, in an iterative design process, wedeveloped glyphs as a design for seamlessly encoding relationships and movement characteristics of a single mover or clustersof movers. Based on these glyph designs, we developed a visual exploration prototype, MotionGlyphs, that supports domainexperts in interactively filtering, clustering, and animating spatio-temporal networks for collective animal behavior analysis. Bymeans of an expert evaluation, we show how MotionGlyphs supports important tasks and analysis goals of our domain experts,and we give evidence of the usefulness for analyzing spatio-temporal networks of collective animal behavior.
SOMFlow : Guided Exploratory Cluster Analysis with Self-Organizing Maps and Analytic Provenance
2018-01, Sacha, Dominik, Kraus, Matthias, Bernard, Jürgen, Behrisch, Michael, Schreck, Tobias, Asano, Yuki, Keim, Daniel A.
Clustering is a core building block for data analysis, aiming to extract otherwise hidden structures and relations from raw datasets, such as particular groups that can be effectively related, compared, and interpreted. A plethora of visual-interactive cluster analysis techniques has been proposed to date, however, arriving at useful clusterings often requires several rounds of user interactions to fine-tune the data preprocessing and algorithms. We present a multi-stage Visual Analytics (VA) approach for iterative cluster refinement together with an implementation (SOMFlow) that uses Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) to analyze time series data. It supports exploration by offering the analyst a visual platform to analyze intermediate results, adapt the underlying computations, iteratively partition the data, and to reflect previous analytical activities. The history of previous decisions is explicitly visualized within a flow graph, allowing to compare earlier cluster refinements and to explore relations. We further leverage quality and interestingness measures to guide the analyst in the discovery of useful patterns, relations, and data partitions. We conducted two pair analytics experiments together with a subject matter expert in speech intonation research to demonstrate that the approach is effective for interactive data analysis, supporting enhanced understanding of clustering results as well as the interactive process itself.
Multiscale Snapshots : Visual Analysis of Temporal Summaries in Dynamic Graphs
2021-02, Cakmak, Eren, Schlegel, Udo, Jäckle, Dominik, Keim, Daniel A., Schreck, Tobias
The overview-driven visual analysis of large-scale dynamic graphs poses a major challenge. We propose Multiscale Snapshots, a visual analytics approach to analyze temporal summaries of dynamic graphs at multiple temporal scales. First, we recursively generate temporal summaries to abstract overlapping sequences of graphs into compact snapshots. Second, we apply graph embeddings to the snapshots to learn low-dimensional representations of each sequence of graphs to speed up specific analytical tasks (e.g., similarity search). Third, we visualize the evolving data from a coarse to fine-granular snapshots to semi-automatically analyze temporal states, trends, and outliers. The approach enables us to discover similar temporal summaries (e.g., reoccurring states), reduces the temporal data to speed up automatic analysis, and to explore both structural and temporal properties of a dynamic graph. We demonstrate the usefulness of our approach by a quantitative evaluation and the application to a real-world dataset.
Where to go : Computational and visual what-if analyses in soccer
2019-12-17, Stein, Manuel, Seebacher, Daniel, Marcelino, Rui, Schreck, Tobias, Grossniklaus, Michael, Keim, Daniel A., Janetzko, Halldor
To prepare their teams for upcoming matches, analysts in professional soccer watch and manually annotate up to three matches a day. When annotating matches, domain experts try to identify and improve suboptimal movements based on intuition and professional experience. The high amount of matches needing to be analysed manually result in a tedious and time-consuming process, and results may be subjective. We propose an automatic approach for the realisation of effective region-based what-if analyses in soccer. Our system covers the automatic detection of region-based faulty movement behaviour, as well as the automatic suggestion of possible improved alternative movements. As we show, our approach effectively supports analysts and coaches investigating matches by speeding up previously time-consuming work. We enable domain experts to include their domain knowledge in the analysis process by allowing to interactively adjust suggested improved movement, as well as its implications on region control. We demonstrate the usefulness of our proposed approach via an expert study with three invited domain experts, one being head coach from the first Austrian soccer league. As our results show that experts most often agree with the suggested player movement (83%), our proposed approach enhances the analytical capabilities in soccer and supports a more efficient analysis.
Bring It to the Pitch : Combining Video and Movement Data to Enhance Team Sport Analysis
2018-01, Stein, Manuel, Janetzko, Halldor, Lamprecht, Andreas, Breitkreutz, Thorsten, Zimmermann, Philip, Goldlücke, Bastian, Schreck, Tobias, Andrienko, Gennady, Grossniklaus, Michael, Keim, Daniel A.
Analysts in professional team sport regularly perform analysis to gain strategic and tactical insights into player and team behavior. Goals of team sport analysis regularly include identification of weaknesses of opposing teams, or assessing performance and improvement potential of a coached team. Current analysis workflows are typically based on the analysis of team videos. Also, analysts can rely on techniques from Information Visualization, to depict e.g., player or ball trajectories. However, video analysis is typically a time-consuming process, where the analyst needs to memorize and annotate scenes. In contrast, visualization typically relies on an abstract data model, often using abstract visual mappings, and is not directly linked to the observed movement context anymore. We propose a visual analytics system that tightly integrates team sport video recordings with abstract visualization of underlying trajectory data. We apply appropriate computer vision techniques to extract trajectory data from video input. Furthermore, we apply advanced trajectory and movement analysis techniques to derive relevant team sport analytic measures for region, event and player analysis in the case of soccer analysis. Our system seamlessly integrates video and visualization modalities, enabling analysts to draw on the advantages of both analysis forms. Several expert studies conducted with team sport analysts indicate the effectiveness of our integrated approach.