Relaxed forced choice improves performance of visual quality assessment methods
2023-06, Jenadeleh, Mohsen, Zagermann, Johannes, Reiterer, Harald, Reips, Ulf-Dietrich, Hamzaoui, Raouf, Saupe, Dietmar
In image quality assessment, a collective visual quality score for an image or video is obtained from the individual ratings of many subjects. One commonly used format for these experiments is the two-alternative forced choice method. Two stimuli with the same content but differing visual quality are presented sequentially or side-by-side. Subjects are asked to select the one of better quality, and when uncertain, they are required to guess. The relaxed alternative forced choice format aims to reduce the cognitive load and the noise in the responses due to the guessing by providing a third response option, namely, "not sure". This work presents a large and comprehensive crowdsourcing experiment to compare these two response formats: the one with the ``not sure'' option and the one without it. To provide unambiguous ground truth for quality evaluation, subjects were shown pairs of images with differing numbers of dots and asked each time to choose the one with more dots. Our crowdsourcing study involved 254 participants and was conducted using a within-subject design. Each participant was asked to respond to 40 pair comparisons with and without the "not sure" response option and completed a questionnaire to evaluate their cognitive load for each testing condition. The experimental results show that the inclusion of the "not sure" response option in the forced choice method reduced mental load and led to models with better data fit and correspondence to ground truth. We also tested for the equivalence of the models and found that they were different. The dataset is available at http://database.mmsp-kn.de/cogvqa-database.html.
MoPeDT : A Modular Head-Mounted Display Toolkit to Conduct Peripheral Vision Research
2023, Albrecht, Matthias, Assländer, Lorenz, Reiterer, Harald, Streuber, Stephan
Peripheral vision plays a significant role in human perception and orientation. However, its relevance for human-computer interaction, especially head-mounted displays, has not been fully explored yet. In the past, a few specialized appliances were developed to display visual cues in the periphery, each designed for a single specific use case only. A multi-purpose headset to exclusively augment peripheral vision did not exist yet. We introduce MoPeDT: Modular Peripheral Display Toolkit, a freely available, flexible, reconfigurable, and extendable headset to conduct peripheral vision research. MoPeDT can be built with a 3D printer and off-the-shelf components. It features multiple spatially configurable near-eye display modules and full 3D tracking inside and outside the lab. With our system, researchers and designers may easily develop and prototype novel peripheral vision interaction and visualization techniques. We demonstrate the versatility of our headset with several possible applications for spatial awareness, balance, interaction, feedback, and notifications. We conducted a small study to evaluate the usability of the system. We found that participants were largely not irritated by the peripheral cues, but the headset's comfort could be further improved. We also evaluated our system based on established heuristics for human-computer interaction toolkits to show how MoPeDT adapts to changing requirements, lowers the entry barrier for peripheral vision research, and facilitates expressive power in the combination of modular building blocks.
Re-locations : Augmenting Personal and Shared Workspaces to Support Remote Collaboration in Incongruent Spaces
2022, Fink, Daniel, Zagermann, Johannes, Reiterer, Harald, Jetter, Hans-Christian
Augmented reality (AR) can create the illusion of being virtually co-located during remote collaboration, e.g., by visualizing remote co-workers as avatars. However, spatial awareness of each other’s activities is limited as physical spaces, including the position of physical devices, are often incongruent. Therefore, alignment methods are needed to support activities on physical devices. In this paper, we present the concept of Re-locations, a method for enabling remote collaboration with augmented reality in incongruent spaces. The idea of the concept is to enrich remote collaboration activities on multiple physical devices with attributes of co-located collaboration such as spatial awareness and spatial referencing by locally relocating remote user representations to user-defined workspaces. We evaluated the Re-locations concept in an explorative user study with dyads using an authentic, collaborative task. Our findings indicate that Re-locations introduce attributes of co-located collaboration like spatial awareness and social presence. Based on our findings, we provide implications for future research and design of remote collaboration systems using AR.
Separation, Composition, or Hybrid? : Comparing Collaborative 3D Object Manipulation Techniques for Handheld Augmented Reality
2021, Wieland, Jonathan, Zagermann, Johannes, Müller, Jens, Reiterer, Harald
Augmented Reality (AR) supported collaboration is a popular topic in HCI research. Previous work has shown the benefits of collaborative 3D object manipulation and identified two possibilities: Either separate or compose users’ inputs. However, their experimental comparison using handheld AR displays is still missing. We, therefore, conducted an experiment in which we tasked 24 dyads with collaboratively positioning virtual objects in handheld AR using three manipulation techniques: 1) Separation – performing only different manipulation tasks (i. e., translation or rotation) simultaneously, 2) Composition – performing only the same manipulation tasks simultaneously and combining individual inputs using a merge policy, and 3) Hybrid – performing any manipulation tasks simultaneously, enabling dynamic transitions between Separation and Composition. While all techniques were similarly effective, Composition was least efficient, with higher subjective workload and worse user experience. Preferences were polarized between clear work division (Separation) and freedom of action (Hybrid). Based on our findings, we offer research and design implications.
ARound the Smartphone : Investigating the Effects of Virtually-Extended Display Size on Spatial Memory
2023-04, Hubenschmid, Sebastian, Zagermann, Johannes, Leicht, Daniel, Reiterer, Harald, Feuchtner, Tiare
Smartphones conveniently place large information spaces in the palms of our hands. While research has shown that larger screens positively affect spatial memory, workload, and user experience, smartphones remain fairly compact for the sake of device ergonomics and portability. Thus, we investigate the use of hybrid user interfaces to virtually increase the available display size by complementing the smartphone with an augmented reality head-worn display. We thereby combine the benefts of familiar touch interaction with the near-infnite visual display space afforded by augmented reality. To better understand the potential of virtually-extended displays and the possible issues of splitting the user’s visual attention between two screens (real and virtual), we conducted a within-subjects experiment with 24 participants completing navigation tasks using diferent virtually-augmented display sizes. Our findings reveal that a desktop monitor size represents a “sweet spot” for extending smartphones with augmented reality, informing the design of hybrid user interfaces.
ReLive : Bridging In-Situ and Ex-Situ Visual Analytics for Analyzing Mixed Reality User Studies
2022, Hubenschmid, Sebastian, Wieland, Jonathan, Fink, Daniel, Batch, Andrea, Zagermann, Johannes, Elmqvist, Niklas, Reiterer, Harald
The nascent field of mixed reality is seeing an ever-increasing need for user studies and field evaluation, which are particularly challenging given device heterogeneity, diversity of use, and mobile deployment. Immersive analytics tools have recently emerged to support such analysis in situ, yet the complexity of the data also warrants an ex-situ analysis using more traditional non-immersive visual analytics setups. To bridge the gap between both approaches, we introduce ReLive: a mixed-immersion visual analytics framework for exploring and analyzing mixed reality user studies. ReLive combines an in-situ virtual reality view with a complementary ex-situ desktop view. While the virtual reality view allows users to relive interactive spatial recordings replicating the original study, the synchronized desktop view provides a familiar interface for analyzing aggregated data. We validated our concepts in a two-step evaluation consisting of a design walkthrough and an empirical expert user study.
ViTT: Towards a Virtual Reality System that Supports the Learning of Ergonomic Patient Transfers
2021, Dürr, Maximilian, Schweitzer, Daniel, Reiterer, Harald
While patient transfers are part of nurses’ daily work, the manual transfer of patients can also pose a major risk to nurses’ health. The Kinaesthetics care conception may help nurses to conduct patient transfers more ergonomically. However, existing support to learn the concept is low. We introduce ViTT, a Virtual Reality system to promote the individual, self-directed learning of ergonomic patient transfers based on the Kinaesthetics care conception. The current implementation of ViTT supports a nurse in two phases: (i) instructions for a patient transfer, and (ii) training of the transfer with a virtual patient (based on a physics engine; implementation limited). In contrast to previous work, our approach provides an immersive experience that may allow for the ‘safe’ training of different transfer scenarios—e.g., patients with different impairments—and the study of different parameters that may influence nurses’ learning experience—e.g., the simulation of stress—in the future.
ARound the Smartphone: Investigating the Efects of Virtually-Extended Display Size on Spatial Memory
2023-04, Hubenschmid, Sebastian, Zagermann, Johannes, Leicht, Daniel, Reiterer, Harald, Feuchtner, Tiare
Smartphones conveniently place large information spaces in the palms of our hands. While research has shown that larger screens positively affect spatial memory, workload, and user experience, smartphones remain fairly compact for the sake of device ergonomics and portability. Thus, we investigate the use of hybrid user interfaces to virtually increase the available display size by complementing the smartphone with an augmented reality head-worn display. We thereby combine the benefts of familiar touch interaction with the near-infnite visual display space aforded by augmented reality. To better understand the potential of virtually-extended displays and the possible issues of splitting the user’s visual attention between two screens (real and virtual), we conducted a within-subjects experiment with 24 participants completing navigation tasks using diferent virtually-augmented display sizes. Our findings reveal that a desktop monitor size represents a “sweet spot” for extending smartphones with augmented reality, informing the design of hybrid user interfaces.
Arrow, Bézier Curve, or Halos? : Comparing 3D Out-of-View Object Visualization Techniques for Handheld Augmented Reality
2022, Wieland, Jonathan, Hegemann Garcia, Rudolf C., Reiterer, Harald, Feuchtner, Tiare
Handheld augmented reality (AR) applications allow users to interact with their virtually augmented environment on the screen of their tablet or smartphone by simply pointing its camera at nearby objects or “points of interest” (POIs). However, this often requires users to carefully scan their surroundings in search of POIs that are out of view. Proposed 2D guides for out-of-view POIs can, unfortunately, be ambiguous due to the projection of a 3D position to 2D screen space. We address this by using 3D visualizations that directly encode the POI’s 3D direction and distance. Based on related work, we implemented three such visualization techniques: (1) 3D Arrow, (2) 3D Bézier Curve, and (3) 3D Halos. We confirmed the applicability of these three techniques in a case study and then compared them in a user study, evaluating performance, workload, and user experience. Participants performed best using 3D Arrow, while surprisingly, 3D Halos led to poor results. We discuss the design implications of these results that can inform future 3D out-of-view object visualization techniques.
STREAM : Exploring the Combination of Spatially-Aware Tablets with Augmented Reality Head-Mounted Displays for Immersive Analytics
2021, Hubenschmid, Sebastian, Zagermann, Johannes, Butscher, Simon, Reiterer, Harald
Recent research in the area of immersive analytics demonstrated the utility of head-mounted augmented reality devices for visual data analysis. However, it can be challenging to use the by default supported mid-air gestures to interact with visualizations in augmented reality (e.g. due to limited precision). Touch-based interaction (e.g. via mobile devices) can compensate for these drawbacks, but is limited to two-dimensional input. In this work we present STREAM: Spatially-aware Tablets combined with Augmented Reality Head-Mounted Displays for the multimodal interaction with 3D visualizations. We developed a novel eyes-free interaction concept for the seamless transition between the tablet and the augmented reality environment. A user study reveals that participants appreciated the novel interaction concept, indicating the potential for spatially-aware tablets in augmented reality. Based on our findings, we provide design insights to foster the application of spatially-aware touch devices in augmented reality and research implications indicating areas that need further investigation.