STREAM : Exploring the Combination of Spatially-Aware Tablets with Augmented Reality Head-Mounted Displays for Immersive Analytics
2021, Hubenschmid, Sebastian, Zagermann, Johannes, Butscher, Simon, Reiterer, Harald
Recent research in the area of immersive analytics demonstrated the utility of head-mounted augmented reality devices for visual data analysis. However, it can be challenging to use the by default supported mid-air gestures to interact with visualizations in augmented reality (e.g. due to limited precision). Touch-based interaction (e.g. via mobile devices) can compensate for these drawbacks, but is limited to two-dimensional input. In this work we present STREAM: Spatially-aware Tablets combined with Augmented Reality Head-Mounted Displays for the multimodal interaction with 3D visualizations. We developed a novel eyes-free interaction concept for the seamless transition between the tablet and the augmented reality environment. A user study reveals that participants appreciated the novel interaction concept, indicating the potential for spatially-aware tablets in augmented reality. Based on our findings, we provide design insights to foster the application of spatially-aware touch devices in augmented reality and research implications indicating areas that need further investigation.
Do We Know What We Enjoy? : Accuracy of Forecasted Eating Happiness
2020-06-17, Villinger, Karoline, Wahl, Deborah R., König, Laura M., Ziesemer, Katrin, Butscher, Simon, Müller, Jens, Reiterer, Harald, Schupp, Harald T., Renner, Britta
Forecasting how we will react in the future is important in every area of our lives. However, people often demonstrate an “impact bias” which leads them to inaccurately forecast their affective reactions to distinct and outstanding future events. The present study examined forecasting accuracy for a day-to-day repetitive experience for which people have a wealth of past experiences (eating happiness), along with dispositional expectations toward eating (“foodiness”). Seventy-three participants (67.12% women, Mage = 41.85 years) used a smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment to assess their food intake and eating happiness over 14 days. Eating happiness experienced in-the-moment showed considerable inter-and intra-individual variation, ICC = 0.47. Comparing forecasted and in-the-moment eating happiness revealed a significant discrepancy whose magnitude was affected by dispositional expectations and the variability of the experience. The results demonstrate that biased forecasts are a general phenomenon prevalent both in outstanding and well-known experiences, while also emphasizing the importance of inter-individual differences for a detailed understanding of affective forecasting.
Clusters, Trends, and Outliers : How Immersive Technologies Can Facilitate the Collaborative Analysis of Multidimensional Data
2018, Butscher, Simon, Hubenschmid, Sebastian, Müller, Jens, Fuchs, Johannes, Reiterer, Harald
Immersive technologies such as augmented reality devices are opening up a new design space for the visual analysis of data. This paper studies the potential of an augmented reality environment for the purpose of collaborative analysis of multidimensional, abstract data. We present ART, a collaborative analysis tool to visualize multidimensional data in augmented reality using an interactive, 3D parallel coordinates visualization. The visualization is anchored to a touch-sensitive tabletop, benefiting from well-established interaction techniques. The results of group-based, expert walkthroughs show that ART can facilitate immersion in the data, a fluid analysis process, and collaboration. Based on the results, we provide a set of guidelines and discuss future research areas to foster the development of immersive technologies as tools for the collaborative analysis of multidimensional data.
Lightweight Visual Data Analysis on Mobile Devices : Providing Self-Monitoring Feedback
2016, Butscher, Simon, Wang, Yunlong, Ziesemer, Katrin, Villinger, Karoline, Wahl, Deborah R., König, Laura M., Sproesser, Gudrun, Renner, Britta, Schupp, Harald T., Reiterer, Harald
IDIAR : Augmented Reality Dashboards to Supervise Mobile Intervention Studies
2021, Vock, Katja, Hubenschmid, Sebastian, Zagermann, Johannes, Butscher, Simon, Reiterer, Harald
Mobile intervention studies employ mobile devices to observe participants’ behavior change over several weeks. Researchers regularly monitor high-dimensional data streams to ensure data quality and prevent data loss (e.g., missing engagement or malfunctions). The multitude of problem sources hampers possible automated detection of such irregularities – providing a use case for interactive dashboards. With the advent of untethered head-mounted AR devices, these dashboards can be placed anywhere in the user's physical environment, leveraging the available space and allowing for flexible information arrangement and natural navigation. In this work, we present the user-centered design and the evaluation of IDIAR: Interactive Dashboards in AR, combining a head-mounted display with the familiar interaction of a smartphone. A user study with 15 domain experts for mobile intervention studies shows that participants appreciated the multimodal interaction approach. Based on our findings, we provide implications for research and design of interactive dashboards in AR.
SMARTexplore : Simplifying High-Dimensional Data Analysis through a Table-Based Visual Analytics Approach
2019, Blumenschein, Michael, Behrisch, Michael, Schmid, Stefanie, Butscher, Simon, Wahl, Deborah R., Villinger, Karoline, Renner, Britta, Reiterer, Harald, Keim, Daniel A.
We present SMARTEXPLORE, a novel visual analytics technique that simplifies the identification and understanding of clusters, correlations, and complex patterns in high-dimensional data. The analysis is integrated into an interactive table-based visualization that maintains a consistent and familiar representation throughout the analysis. The visualization is tightly coupled with pattern matching, subspace analysis, reordering, and layout algorithms. To increase the analyst’s trust in the revealed patterns, SMARTEXPLORE automatically selects and computes statistical measures based on dimension and data properties. While existing approaches to analyzing highdimensional data (e.g., planar projections and Parallel coordinates) have proven effective, they typically have steep learning curves for non-visualization experts. Our evaluation, based on three expert case studies, confirms that non-visualization experts successfully reveal patterns in high-dimensional data when using SMARTEXPLORE.
InformationSense : Trade-offs for the Design and the Implementation of a Large Highly Deformable Cloth Display
2017-06-30, Butscher, Simon, Dürr, Maximilian, Reiterer, Harald
Deformable displays can provide two major benefits compared to rigid displays: Objects of different shapes and deformabilities, situated in our physical environment, can be equipped with deformable displays, and users can benefit from their pre-existing knowledge about the interaction with physical objects when interacting with deformable displays. In this article we present InformationSense, a large, highly deformable cloth display. The article contributes to two research areas in the context of deformable displays: It presents an approach for the tracking of large, highly deformable surfaces, and it presents one of the first UX analyses of cloth displays that will help with the design of future interaction techniques for this kind of display. The comparison of InformationSense with a rigid display interface unveiled the trade-off that while users are able to interact with InformationSense more naturally and significantly preferred InformationSense in terms of joy of use, they preferred the rigid display interfaces in terms of efficiency. This suggests that deformable displays are already suitable if high hedonic qualities are important but need to be enhanced with additional digital power if high pragmatic qualities are required.
Occurrence of and Reasons for "Missing Events" in Mobile Dietary Assessments : Results From Three Event-Based Ecological Momentary Assessment Studies
2020-10-14, Ziesemer, Katrin, König, Laura M., Boushey, Carol Jo, Villinger, Karoline, Wahl, Deborah R., Butscher, Simon, Müller, Jens, Reiterer, Harald, Schupp, Harald T., Renner, Britta
Background: Establishing a methodology for assessing nutritional behavior comprehensively and accurately poses a great challenge. Mobile technologies such as mobile image-based food recording apps enable eating events to be assessed in the moment in real time, thereby reducing memory biases inherent in retrospective food records. However, users might find it challenging to take images of the food they consume at every eating event over an extended period, which might lead to incomplete records of eating events (missing events).
Objective: Analyzing data from 3 studies that used mobile image-based food recording apps and varied in their technical enrichment, this study aims to assess how often eating events (meals and snacks) were missed over a period of 8 days in a naturalistic setting by comparing the number of recorded events with the number of normative expected events, over time, and with recollections of missing events.
Methods: Participants in 3 event-based Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) studies using mobile image-based dietary assessments were asked to record all eating events (study 1, N=38, 1070 eating events; study 2, N=35, 934 eating events; study 3, N=110, 3469 eating events). Study 1 used a basic app; study 2 included 1 fixed reminder and the possibility to add meals after the actual eating events occurred instead of in the moment (addendum); and study 3 included 2 fixed reminders, an addendum feature, and the option to record skipped meals. The number of recalled missed events and their reasons were assessed by semistructured interviews after the EMA period (studies 1 and 2) and daily questionnaires (study 3).
Results: Overall, 183 participants reported 5473 eating events. Although the momentary adherence rate as indexed by a comparison with normative expected events was generally high across all 3 studies, a differential pattern of results emerged with a higher rate of logged meals in the more technically intensive study 3. Multilevel models for the logging trajectories of reported meals in all 3 studies showed a significant, albeit small, decline over time (b=−.11 to −.14, Ps<.001, pseudo-R²=0.04-0.06), mainly because of a drop in reported snacks between days 1 and 2. Intraclass coefficients indicated that 38% or less of the observed variance was because of individual differences. The most common reasons for missing events were competing activities and technical issues, whereas situational barriers were less important.
Conclusions: Three different indicators (normative, time stability, and recalled missing events) consistently indicated missing events. However, given the intensive nature of diet EMA protocols, the effect sizes were rather small and the logging trajectories over time were remarkably stable. Moreover, the individual’s actual state and context seemed to exert a greater influence on adherence rates than stable individual differences, which emphasizes the need for a more nuanced understanding of the factors that affect momentary adherence.
Employing Tangible Visualisations in Augmented Reality with Mobile Devices
2018, Hubenschmid, Sebastian, Zagermann, Johannes, Butscher, Simon, Reiterer, Harald
Recent research has demonstrated the benefits of mixed realities for information visualisation. Often the focus lies on the visualisation itself, leaving interaction opportunities through different modalities largely unexplored. Yet, mixed reality in particular can benefit from a combination of different modalities. This work examines an existing mixed reality visualisation which is combined with a large tabletop for touch interaction. Although this allows for familiar operation, the approach comes with some limitations which we address by employing mobile devices, thus adding tangibility and proxemics as input modalities.
Studying collaborative object positioning in distributed augmented realities
2017, Müller, Jens, Butscher, Simon, Feyer, Stefan P., Reiterer, Harald
Augmented Reality (AR) displays have been suggested as shared-space technology to support remote collaboration, e.g., in design and building tasks. But with AR displays, the shared space typically consists of only the virtual work objects (e.g., design artifacts) while collaborators' interaction is grounded in their individual, physical environment. This can become problematic during activities that involve the positioning of virtual objects because the collaborators may require shared spatial references to coordinate their actions. In a lab experiment with 16 dyads, we studied how collaborators deal with that issue, and whether the provisioning of additive, virtual landmarks influences collaboration. As a result the landmarks improved user experience and decreased the reported temporal demand. In addition, we identified task-specific problem situations and provide implications for the design of distributed ARs to facilitate the collaborative positioning of virtual objects.