Separation, Composition, or Hybrid? : Comparing Collaborative 3D Object Manipulation Techniques for Handheld Augmented Reality
2021, Wieland, Jonathan, Zagermann, Johannes, Müller, Jens, Reiterer, Harald
Augmented Reality (AR) supported collaboration is a popular topic in HCI research. Previous work has shown the benefits of collaborative 3D object manipulation and identified two possibilities: Either separate or compose users’ inputs. However, their experimental comparison using handheld AR displays is still missing. We, therefore, conducted an experiment in which we tasked 24 dyads with collaboratively positioning virtual objects in handheld AR using three manipulation techniques: 1) Separation – performing only different manipulation tasks (i. e., translation or rotation) simultaneously, 2) Composition – performing only the same manipulation tasks simultaneously and combining individual inputs using a merge policy, and 3) Hybrid – performing any manipulation tasks simultaneously, enabling dynamic transitions between Separation and Composition. While all techniques were similarly effective, Composition was least efficient, with higher subjective workload and worse user experience. Preferences were polarized between clear work division (Separation) and freedom of action (Hybrid). Based on our findings, we offer research and design implications.
A Qualitative Comparison Between Augmented and Virtual Reality Collaboration with Handheld Devices
2019, Müller, Jens, Zagermann, Johannes, Wieland, Jonathan, Pfeil, Ulrike, Reiterer, Harald
Handheld Augmented Reality (AR) displays offer a see-through option to create the illusion of virtual objects being integrated into the viewer’s physical environment. Some AR display technologies also allow for the deactivation of the see-through option, turning AR tablets into Virtual Reality (VR) devices that integrate the virtual objects into an exclusively virtual environment. Both display configurations are typically available on handheld devices, raising the question of their influence on users’ experience during collaborative activities. In two experiments, we studied how the different display configurations influence user experience, workload, and team performance of co-located and distributed collaborators during a spatial referencing task. A mixed-methods approach revealed that participants’ opinions were polarized towards the two display configurations, regardless of the spatial distribution of collaboration. Based on our findings, we identify critical aspects to be addressed in future research to better understand and support co-located and distributed collaboration using AR and VR displays.
Remote Collaboration With Mixed Reality Displays : How Shared Virtual Landmarks Facilitate Spatial Referencing
2017, Müller, Jens, Rädle, Roman, Reiterer, Harald
HCI research has demonstrated Mixed Reality (MR) as being beneficial for co-located collaborative work. For remote collaboration, however, the collaborators' visual contexts do not coincide due to their individual physical environments. The problem becomes apparent when collaborators refer to physical landmarks in their individual environments to guide each other's attention. In an experimental study with 16 dyads, we investigated how the provisioning of shared virtual landmarks (SVLs) influences communication behavior and user experience. A quantitative analysis revealed that participants used significantly less ambiguous spatial expressions and reported an improved user experience when SVLs were provided. Based on these findings and a qualitative video analysis we provide implications for the design of MRs to facilitate remote collaboration.
bibox : A Tangible Approach to Motivating Participation in Public Libraries
2016, Hofmann, Jacqueline, Müller, Jens, Gipp, Bela, Reiterer, Harald
Within the Library 2.0 model, visitors of public libraries are enabled to actively shape the services of their library. Unlike previous trends, principles of participation and collaboration should be assimilated into the physical space of public libraries instead of being added as an extra layer on top of existing services. We present a set of eight design principles for motivating participatory systems in the Library 2.0 context. Based on these principles, we introduce bibox, a tangible book rating- and recommendation system for public libraries. In an in-the-wild study, we evaluate how our system motivates active participation. We show that the proposed design principles can contribute to higher levels of engagement from the users of the system within the Library 2.0 context.
KiTT - The Kinaesthetics Transfer Teacher : Design and Evaluation of a Tablet-based System to Promote the Learning of Ergonomic Patient Transfers
2021, Dürr, Maximilian, Borowski, Marcel, Gröschel, Carla, Pfeil, Ulrike, Müller, Jens, Reiterer, Harald
Nurses frequently transfer patients as part of their daily work. However, manual patient transfers pose a major risk to nurses’ health. Although the Kinaesthetics care conception can help address this issue, existing support to learn the concept is low. We present KiTT, a tablet-based system, to promote the learning of ergonomic patient transfers based on the Kinaesthetics care conception. KiTT supports the training of Kinaesthetics-based patient transfers by two nurses. The nurses are guided by the phases (i) interactive instructions, (ii) training of transfer conduct, and (iii) feedback and reflection. We evaluated KiTT with 26 nursing-care students in a nursing-care school. Our results indicate that KiTT provides a good subjective support for the learning of Kinaesthetics. Our results also suggest that KiTT can promote the ergonomically correct conduct of patient transfers while providing a good user experience adequate to the nursing-school context, and reveal how KiTT can extend existing practices.
Clusters, Trends, and Outliers : How Immersive Technologies Can Facilitate the Collaborative Analysis of Multidimensional Data
2018, Butscher, Simon, Hubenschmid, Sebastian, Müller, Jens, Fuchs, Johannes, Reiterer, Harald
Immersive technologies such as augmented reality devices are opening up a new design space for the visual analysis of data. This paper studies the potential of an augmented reality environment for the purpose of collaborative analysis of multidimensional, abstract data. We present ART, a collaborative analysis tool to visualize multidimensional data in augmented reality using an interactive, 3D parallel coordinates visualization. The visualization is anchored to a touch-sensitive tabletop, benefiting from well-established interaction techniques. The results of group-based, expert walkthroughs show that ART can facilitate immersion in the data, a fluid analysis process, and collaboration. Based on the results, we provide a set of guidelines and discuss future research areas to foster the development of immersive technologies as tools for the collaborative analysis of multidimensional data.
Loci Spheres : A Mobile App Concept Based on the Method of Loci
2017, Wieland, Jonathan, Müller, Jens, Pfeil, Ulrike, Reiterer, Harald
The method of loci is a technique to memorize large quantities of information by associating the items to be learned with familiar places (loci). The effectiveness of the technique has been well established, but the initial creation of the loci can be a tedious task. With the aim of supporting flexible learning in situ, we introduce Loci Spheres, a novel concept which facilitates the creation of loci using mobile devices. We present three variants which support the technique to varying degrees: spatial loci (uses spatial input) and panning loci (uses panning) to define and navigate the loci, and no loci (baseline condition), where users have to create the loci within their imagination. In an in-the-wild study we investigated perceived system support, usage behavior, and effectiveness of the three variants. With this work we introduce a novel memorization tool which addresses the potential barrier involved in loci creation and provide a set of four design principles on how to leverage the technique with mobile devices in everyday situations.
Learning Patient Transfers with Technology : A Qualitative Investigation of the Design Space
2019, Dürr, Maximilian, Pfeil, Ulrike, Müller, Jens, Borowski, Marcel, Gröschel, Carla, Reiterer, Harald
Nurses who care about patients with functional disabilities are frequently required to transfer a patient from one place to another. To prevent nurses from injuring themselves during patient transfers, many government-supported schools in Germany provide programs which teach how to conduct transfers based on the kinaesthetics care conception. However, the program is typically limited to merely three lectures. With the goal of promoting nurses’ health behavior, we analyzed current practices in kinaesthetics education and explored how interactive technology can extend those practices. We interviewed nursing-care teachers (N = 5) and students (N = 27), and conducted four contextual inquiries during kinaesthetics course sessions. A qualitative analysis of the data revealed three themes. Based on these, we describe a set of implications to support the learning of kinaesthetics-based transfers by means of technology. We propose the use of the implications as initial design goals for user-centered design processes and exemplify their application by illustrating a concept for a tablet-based learning system.
Studying collaborative object positioning in distributed augmented realities
2017, Müller, Jens, Butscher, Simon, Feyer, Stefan P., Reiterer, Harald
Augmented Reality (AR) displays have been suggested as shared-space technology to support remote collaboration, e.g., in design and building tasks. But with AR displays, the shared space typically consists of only the virtual work objects (e.g., design artifacts) while collaborators' interaction is grounded in their individual, physical environment. This can become problematic during activities that involve the positioning of virtual objects because the collaborators may require shared spatial references to coordinate their actions. In a lab experiment with 16 dyads, we studied how collaborators deal with that issue, and whether the provisioning of additive, virtual landmarks influences collaboration. As a result the landmarks improved user experience and decreased the reported temporal demand. In addition, we identified task-specific problem situations and provide implications for the design of distributed ARs to facilitate the collaborative positioning of virtual objects.
Virtual Objects as Spatial Cues in Collaborative Mixed Reality Environments : How They Shape Communication Behavior and User Task Load
2016, Müller, Jens, Rädle, Roman, Reiterer, Harald
In collaborative activities, collaborators can use physical objects in their shared environment as spatial cues to guide each other's attention. Collaborative mixed reality environments (MREs) include both, physical and digital objects. To study how virtual objects influence collaboration and whether they are used as spatial cues, we conducted a controlled lab experiment with 16 dyads. Results of our study show that collaborators favored the digital objects as spatial cues over the physical environment and the physical objects: Collaborators used significantly less deictic gestures in favor of more disambiguous verbal references and a decreased subjective workload when virtual objects were present. This suggests adding additional virtual objects as spatial cues to MREs to improve user experience during collaborative mixed reality tasks.