Visual Analytics of Co-Occurrences to Discover Subspaces in Structured Data
2023, Jentner, Wolfgang, Lindholz, Giuliana, Schäfer, Hanna, El-Assady, Mennatallah, Ma, Kwan-Liu, Keim, Daniel A.
We present an approach that shows all relevant subspaces of categorical data condensed in a single picture. We model the categorical values of the attributes as co-occurrences with data partitions generated from structured data using pattern mining. We show that these co-occurrences are a-priori allowing us to greatly reduce the search space effectively generating the condensed picture where conventional approaches filter out several subspaces as these are deemed insignificant. The task of identifying interesting subspaces is common but difficult due to exponential search spaces and the curse of dimensionality. One application of such a task might be identifying a cohort of patients defined by attributes such as gender, age, and diabetes type that share a common patient history, which is modeled as event sequences. Filtering the data by these attributes is common but cumbersome and often does not allow a comparison of subspaces. We contribute a powerful multi-dimensional pattern exploration approach (MDPE-approach) agnostic to the structured data type that models multiple attributes and their characteristics as co-occurrences, allowing the user to identify and compare thousands of subspaces of interest in a single picture. In our MDPE-approach, we introduce two methods to dramatically reduce the search space, outputting only the boundaries of the search space in the form of two tables. We implement the MDPE-approach in an interactive visual interface (MDPE-vis) that provides a scalable, pixel-based visualization design allowing the identification, comparison, and sense-making of subspaces in structured data. Our case studies using a gold-standard dataset and external domain experts confirm our approach’s and implementation’s applicability. A third use case sheds light on the scalability of our approach and a user study with 15 participants underlines its usefulness and power.
Toward Mass Video Data Analysis : Interactive and Immersive 4D Scene Reconstruction
2020-09-22, Kraus, Matthias, Pollok, Thomas, Miller, Matthias, Kilian, Timon, Moritz, Tobias, Schweitzer, Daniel, Beyerer, Jürgen, Keim, Daniel A., Qu, Chengchao, Jentner, Wolfgang
The technical progress in the last decades makes photo and video recording devices omnipresent. This change has a significant impact, among others, on police work. It is no longer unusual that a myriad of digital data accumulates after a criminal act, which must be reviewed by criminal investigators to collect evidence or solve the crime. This paper presents the VICTORIA Interactive 4D Scene Reconstruction and Analysis Framework ("ISRA-4D" 1.0), an approach for the visual consolidation of heterogeneous video and image data in a 3D reconstruction of the corresponding environment. First, by reconstructing the environment in which the materials were created, a shared spatial context of all available materials is established. Second, all footage is spatially and temporally registered within this 3D reconstruction. Third, a visualization of the hereby created 4D reconstruction (3D scene + time) is provided, which can be analyzed interactively. Additional information on video and image content is also extracted and displayed and can be analyzed with supporting visualizations. The presented approach facilitates the process of filtering, annotating, analyzing, and getting an overview of large amounts of multimedia material. The framework is evaluated using four case studies which demonstrate its broad applicability. Furthermore, the framework allows the user to immerse themselves in the analysis by entering the scenario in virtual reality. This feature is qualitatively evaluated by means of interviews of criminal investigators and outlines potential benefits such as improved spatial understanding and the initiation of new fields of application.
Promoting Ethical Awareness in Communication Analysis : Investigating Potentials and Limits of Visual Analytics for Intelligence Applications
2022, Fischer, Maximilian T., Hirsbrunner, Simon David, Jentner, Wolfgang, Miller, Matthias, Keim, Daniel A., Helm, Paula
Digital systems for analyzing human communication data have become prevalent in recent years. Intelligence analysis of communications data in investigative journalism, criminal intelligence, and law present particularly interesting cases, as they must take into account the often highly sensitive properties of the underlying operations and data. At the same time, these are areas where increasingly automated, sophisticated approaches systems can be particularly relevant, especially in terms of Big Data manageability. However, by the shifting of responsibilities, this also poses dangers. In addition to privacy concerns, these dangers relate to uncertain or poor data quality, leading to discrimination and potentially misleading insights. Visual analytics combines machine learning methods with interactive visual interfaces to enable human sense- and decision-making. This technique can be key for designing and operating meaningful interactive communication analysis systems that consider these ethical challenges. In this interdisciplinary work, a joint endeavor of computer scientists, ethicists, and scholars in Science & Technology Studies, we investigate and evaluate opportunities and risks involved in using Visual analytics approaches for communication analysis in intelligence applications in particular. We introduce, at first, the common technological systems used in communication analysis, further discussing the domain-specific ethical implications, tensions, and risks involved. We then make the case of how tailored Visual Analytics approaches may reduce and mitigate the described problems, both theoretically and through practical examples. We show that finding Visual Analytics design solutions for ethical issues is not a mere optimization task, but balancing out and negotiating these trade-offs has, as we argue, to be an integral aspect of the system design process from the outset.
PRIMAGE project : predictive in silico multiscale analytics to support childhood cancer personalised evaluation empowered by imaging biomarkers
2020-04-03, Martí-Bonmatí, Luis, Alberich-Bayarri, Ángel, Ladenstein, Ruth, Blanquer, Ignacio, Segrelles, J. Damian, Cerdá-Alberich, Leonor, Gkontra, Polyxeni, Hero, Barbara, Keim, Daniel A., Jentner, Wolfgang
PRIMAGE is one of the largest and more ambitious research projects dealing with medical imaging, artificial intelligence and cancer treatment in children. It is a 4-year European Commission-financed project that has 16 European partners in the consortium, including the European Society for Paediatric Oncology, two imaging biobanks, and three prominent European paediatric oncology units. The project is constructed as an observational in silico study involving high-quality anonymised datasets (imaging, clinical, molecular, and genetics) for the training and validation of machine learning and multiscale algorithms. The open cloud-based platform will offer precise clinical assistance for phenotyping (diagnosis), treatment allocation (prediction), and patient endpoints (prognosis), based on the use of imaging biomarkers, tumour growth simulation, advanced visualisation of confidence scores, and machine-learning approaches. The decision support prototype will be constructed and validated on two paediatric cancers: neuroblastoma and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. External validation will be performed on data recruited from independent collaborative centres. Final results will be available for the scientific community at the end of the project, and ready for translation to other malignant solid tumours.
QuestionComb : A Gamification Approach for the Visual Explanation of Linguistic Phenomena through Interactive Labeling
2021, Sevastjanova, Rita, Jentner, Wolfgang, Sperrle, Fabian, Kehlbeck, Rebecca, Bernard, Jürgen, El-Assady, Mennatallah
Linguistic insight in the form of high-level relationships and rules in text builds the basis of our understanding of language. However, the data-driven generation of such structures often lacks labeled resources that can be used as training data for supervised machine learning. The creation of such ground-truth data is a time-consuming process that often requires domain expertise to resolve text ambiguities and characterize linguistic phenomena. Furthermore, the creation and refinement of machine learning models is often challenging for linguists as the models are often complex, in-transparent, and difficult to understand. To tackle these challenges, we present a visual analytics technique for interactive data labeling that applies concepts from gamification and explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) to support complex classification tasks. The visual-interactive labeling interface promotes the creation of effective training data. Visual explanations of learned rules unveil the decisions of the machine learning model and support iterative and interactive optimization. The gamification-inspired design guides the user through the labeling process and provides feedback on the model performance. As an instance of the proposed technique, we present QuestionComb, a workspace tailored to the task of question classification (i.e., in information-seeking vs. non-information-seeking questions). Our evaluation studies confirm that gamification concepts are beneficial to engage users through continuous feedback, offering an effective visual analytics technique when combined with active learning and XAI.
Visual Analytics for Supporting Conflict Resolution in Large Railway Networks
2020, Schlegel, Udo, Jentner, Wolfgang, Buchmüller, Juri F., Cakmak, Eren, Castiglia, Giuliano, Canepa, Renzo, Petralli, Simone, Oneto, Luca, Keim, Daniel A., Anguita, Davide
Train operators are responsible for maintaining and following the schedule of large-scale railway transport systems. Disruptions to this schedule imply conflicts that occur when two trains are bound to use the same railway segment. It is upon the train operator to decide which train must go first to resolve the conflict. As the railway transport system is a large and complex network, the decision may have a high impact on the future schedule, further train delay, costs, and other performance indicators. Due to this complexity and the enormous amount of underlying data, machine learning models have proven to be useful. However, the automated models are not accessible to the train operators which results in a low trust in following their predictions. We propose a Visual Analytics solution for a decision support system to support the train operators in making an informed decision while providing access to the complex machine learning models. Different integrated, interactive views allow the train operator to explore the various impacts that a decision may have. Additionally, the user can compare various data-driven models which are structured by an experience-based model. We demonstrate a decision-making process in a use case highlighting how the different views are made use of by the train operator.