Profiles of learners based on their cognitive and metacognitive learning strategy use : occurrence and relations with gender, intrinsic motivation, and perceived autonomy support
2022-12, Kwarikunda, Diana, Schiefele, Ulrich, Muwonge, Charles Magoba, Ssenyonga, Joseph
For life-long learning, an effective learning strategy repertoire is particularly important during acquisition of knowledge in lower secondary school—an educational level characterized with transition into more autonomous learning environments with increased complex academic demands. Using latent profile analysis, we explored the occurrence of different secondary school learner profiles depending on their various combinations of cognitive and metacognitive learning strategy use, as well as their differences in perceived autonomy support, intrinsic motivation, and gender. Data were collected from 576 ninth grade students in Uganda using self-report questionnaires. Four learner profiles were identified: competent strategy user, struggling user, surface-level learner, and deep-level learner profiles. Gender differences were noted in students’ use of elaboration and organization strategies to learn Physics, in favor of girls. In terms of profile memberships, significant differences in gender, intrinsic motivation and perceived autonomy support were also noted. Girls were 2.4–2.7 times more likely than boys to be members of the competent strategy user and surface-level learner profiles. Additionally, higher levels of intrinsic motivation predicted an increased likelihood membership into the deep-level learner profile, while higher levels of perceived teacher autonomy predicted an increased likelihood membership into the competent strategy user profile as compared to other profiles. Further, implications of the findings were discussed.
Job Perceptions Contribute to Stress among Secondary School Teachers in Southwestern Uganda
2021-02-26, Ssenyonga, Joseph, Hecker, Tobias
(1) Background: Teachers’ personal and strenuous working conditions reflect the realities of the teaching vocation that may result in increased stress levels and associated negative consequences, such as negative emotions. It is also well-known that teacher stress contributes to more violence against students. However, little is known about personal and school context factors that contribute to teachers’ stress. The current study examined whether, in addition to school-related factors, job perceptions, including the feeling of pressure at work and perceived school climate and teaching difficulties, contribute to teachers’ stress.
(2) Methods: A representative sample of 291 teachers from 12 public secondary schools in southwestern Uganda responded to self-administered questionnaires.
(3) Results: Teaching difficulties and feelings of pressure at work contributed to teachers’ stress. Furthermore, stress did not vary with teachers’ sociodemographic variables.
(4) Conclusions: Teachers’ perceptions of their working conditions were associated with teacher stress levels. Therefore, more efforts need to be geared towards improving the working conditions of teachers as a way of reducing stress.
Stress and positive attitudes towards violent discipline are associated with school violence by Ugandan teachers
2019-07, Ssenyonga, Joseph, Hermenau, Katharin, Nkuba, Mabula, Hecker, Tobias
Background: Globally, the use of violent discipline methods by teachers to manage child behavior is still highly prevalent despite enactment of laws that prohibit school violence. In the case of Uganda there is a dearth of accurate prevalence statistics on school violence and factors associated with the use of violence by teachers.
Objectives: Therefore, the current study examined the prevalence of and attitudes towards violence. The study also explored the association between teachers’ stress, positive attitudes towards violence and the use of violent discipline management methods.
Methods: A representative sample of 291 teachers and 702 students from 12 public secondary schools in southwestern Uganda responded to anonymous self-administered questionnaires. Data were collected from April to November 2017.
Results: Findings indicated that 86.5% of the teachers reported having used violent disciplinary methods on students in the past month while 91.5% of the students reported experiencing violence by teachers. Teachers (88.3%, n = 256) endorsed positive attitudes towards violent discipline. Teachers’ stress was related to higher levels of violent discipline (β = 0.20). This relation was mediated by positive attitudes towards violence (0.06, SE: 0.01, 95%-CI: 0.035–0.092).
Conclusions: Our findings indicate that teacher reported stress was associated with their use of violent behavior and positive attitudes and that positive attitudes reduced the association between teachers’ stress and violent behavior. Therefore, interventions aiming to reduce violence by teachers may need to integrate effective stress management skills, in addition to nonviolent discipline strategies, and fostering attitudinal change towards the use of violent methods.
Self-regulated learning among teacher education students : motivational beliefs influence on the use of metacognition
2017, Muwonge, Charles Magoba, Schiefele, Ulrich, Ssenyonga, Joseph, Kibedi, Henry
In the present study, we examined the relationships between motivational beliefs (self-efficacy, task value, and control of learning beliefs) and use of metacognitive learning strategies among teacher education students in Uganda. The sample comprised of 649 students selected from seven universities. Data were collected using several scales from the modified Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire, and analysed using Structural Equation Modelling. Task value and self-efficacy independently and significantly predicted students’ reported use of metacognition. Students’ self-reported self-efficacy and task value explained 38% of the variance in their use of metacognition. The evidence suggests interventions aimed at improving teacher education students’ metacognitive skills to focus on enhancing their efficacy and value beliefs.
Characterizing the prevalence and contributing factors of sexual violence : A representative cross-sectional study among school-going adolescents in two East African countries
2020-09-11, Goessmann, Katharina, Ssenyonga, Joseph, Nkuba, Mabula, Hermenau, Katharin, Hecker, Tobias
Sexual violence against minors is a global phenomenon with wide-ranging negative consequences. Global reports suggest that it is a particularly serious issue in East African countries, although research on prevalence and characteristics of violence in these countries is scarce.
The aim of this study was to assess sexual violence and its circumstances among Tanzanian and Ugandan adolescents.
Participants and setting
Two representative samples of secondary school students aged 12–17 from Tanzania and Uganda (N = 1402) were included in this study.
Data assessed using standardized questionnaires were analyzed to determine prevalence, characteristics, and contributing factors of sexual violence among youth.
We found high levels of sexual violence (27.2 %) exceeding global average estimates of under 20 %. Significantly more sexual violence experiences were reported by boys (29.9 %) than girls (24.6 %) and by older compared to younger adolescents (30.2 % vs. 19.6 %). Peers were the most frequent perpetrator group, named by 47.6 % of those reporting abuse. Several potential contributing factors for victimization were identified, such as rural living area, external financial support, and being in a romantic relationship.
Sexual violence is a relevant issue among East African adolescents that occurs in a variety of settings but appears to be most prevalent between peers. Comprehensive sexual education approaches may help to improve the protection of adolescents and to enhance autonomous sexual development.
Modeling the relationship between motivational beliefs, cognitive learning strategies, and academic performance of teacher education students
2019-03, Muwonge, Charles Magoba, Schiefele, Ulrich, Ssenyonga, Joseph, Kibedi, Henry
Although self-regulated learning has received much attention over the past decades, research on how teacher education students regulate their own learning has been scarce, particularly in third world countries. In the present study, we examined the structural relationships between motivational beliefs, cognitive learning strategies, and academic performance among teacher education students in Uganda. The sample comprised of 1081 students selected from seven universities. Data were collected using several subscales from the modified Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire and were analyzed by structural equation modeling. Cognitive learning strategies fully mediated the relationship between motivational beliefs and academic performance. Motivational beliefs contributed to students’ academic performance mainly through influencing their critical thinking and organizational skills. Therefore, interventions to improve teacher education students’ academic performance should focus not only on boosting their motivation but also on enhancing their use of cognitive learning strategies.
Relations between perceived teacher’s autonomy support, cognitive appraisals and boredom in physics learning among lower secondary school students
2021-12, Ekatushabe, Margaret, Kwarikunda, Diana, Muwonge, Charles M., Ssenyonga, Joseph, Schiefele, Ulrich
Boredom during learning activities has the potential of impeding attention, motivation, learning and eventually achievement. Yet, research focusing on its possible antecedents seems to have received less attention especially within the physics domain. Based on assumptions of the Control Value Theory of Achievement Emotions (CVTAE), this study aimed at examining gender differences and structural relationships between students’ reported perceived teacher autonomy support (PTAS), cognitive appraisals (self-efficacy and task value) and learning-related boredom in physics. A sample of 375 (56% females) randomly selected 9th grade students (mean age = 15.03 years; SD = 1.02) from five secondary schools in Masaka district of Uganda took part in the study.
Data collected from students’ self-reports using standardised instruments revealed that higher levels of PTAS, self-efficacy, and task value were significantly associated with lower levels of boredom during physics learning. Females reported significantly greater task value for learning physics than the males. Self-efficacy (β = − .10, p < .05) and task value (β = − .09, p < .01) partially mediated the relationship between PTAS and boredom. PTAS showed significant direct negative contributions to boredom (β = − .34, p < .001).
These findings provide support for theory and practice about the importance of promoting autonomy among students by adjusting instructional behaviours among teachers of physics. Teacher autonomy supportive behaviours influence formation of students’ beliefs about ability, subjective value and learning-related boredom in physics. Implications and suggestions for further research are also discussed in this paper.
Prevalence of family violence and mental health and their relation to peer victimization : A representative study of adolescent students in Southwestern Uganda
2019-12, Ssenyonga, Joseph, Magoba Muwonge, Charles, Hecker, Tobias
Despite global efforts to end violence against children in all settings, reports reveal that violence against children is still highly prevalent, especially in low-and middle- income countries. Violence in childhood is associated with a host of negative outcomes, and exposure in one setting can easily spill over to other contexts. For instance, exposure to family violence was not only related to mental health problems but also seems to be a risk factor for peer victimization.
The present study aimed to examine the prevalence of maltreatment within the family and adolescents’ mental health problems and their relation to peer victimization. We also aimed to gain new insights into the perceptions of adolescents concerning maltreatment within their families.
Data were collected from April to November 2017 in a representative sample of 702 students from 12 public secondary schools in Southwestern Uganda who responded to self-administered questionnaires.
Overall, 95% of the students experienced at least one type of family violence in the past month. Students (81.3%) had endorsed some level of acceptance of violent discipline as a valid strategy in response to any misbehavior. Maltreatment within the family was related to peer victimization (β = .47) and this relation was mediated by mental health problems (0.002, 95%-CI: 0.001–0.004).
The results indicated a high prevalence of maltreatment within Ugandan families that was associated with peer victimization. This underscores the need to implement interventions aiming to reduce maltreatment and violence in order to protect children from potentially negative consequences.
Reducing violence against children by implementing the preventative intervention Interaction Competencies with Children for Teachers (ICC-T) : study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial in Southwestern Uganda
2018-08-13, Ssenyonga, Joseph, Hermenau, Katharin, Nkuba, Mabula, Hecker, Tobias
An adolescent's school is often the second most important place for his development and education after the home. However, reports highlight the recurrence of the use of violent discipline in schools. There are few school-based interventions that aim at reducing violence at school that have been implemented and evaluated in sub-Saharan Africa. To reduce violent disciplinary measures used at school, we aim to implement and evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of the preventative intervention Interaction Competencies with Children for Teachers (ICC-T).
The study will be conducted in six randomly selected districts of the Ankole region in southwestern Uganda. We shall randomly select two mixed-day secondary schools from each district that fulfill our inclusion criteria. Schools will be randomly assigned to the intervention condition, where ICC-T will be implemented, and control schools (no intervention). Sixty students between the ages of 12 and 17 years and at least 15 teachers per school will be included in the trial. We aim to collect pre-assessment data directly before the intervention (t1) and 3 months after the intervention (t2) in both intervention and control schools.
Using self-administered questionnaires, we will measure students’ exposure to violence using the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS), their psychological well-being using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and teachers’ positive attitudes towards violent disciplining and teachers’ use of violent disciplinary methods (CTS). The implementation feasibility of ICC-T in the cultural context of southwestern Uganda will be assessed with purpose-built measures that follow the guidelines for feasibility studies assessing the demand, applicability, acceptability, and integration of core elements in the daily work.
The proposed study will allow us to test the feasibility and efficacy of a preventative intervention seeking to reduce violent disciplinary measures in school settings using a scientifically rigorous design. The proposed study provides the opportunity to contribute to the attainment of goal number 16.2 of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Agenda 2015–2030, which aspires to end all forms of violence against children.