2014, Plattner, Helmut, Hentschel, Joachim
Este libro ofrece una explicación clara y sencilla de los aspectos fundamentales de la biología celular, un campo de la ciencia de gran actualidad y con un desarrollo casi explosivo. El mérito de sus directores, basado en su amplia experiencia docente, ha sido hacer fácilmente comprensibles los contenidos de una disciplina cada vez más complicada y menos clara, incluso para los expertos. Entre sus aspectos sobresalientes se encuentran:
Formato de bolsillo con un cuidadoso diseño gráfico y excelentes ilustraciones en color.
Resumen introductorio en cada capítulo.
Recuadros con “acercamientos” (zoom) de algunos aspectos moleculares importantes de la biología celular que, partiendo de conocimientos básicos, mejoran el paso de la biología clásica a la molecular.
Apartados de patología celular (citopatología) humana que relacionan las alteraciones celulares y moleculares con determinadas enfermedades en el hombre.
Una obra ágil y práctica para el estudio del fascinante mundo de la célula, ideal para estudiantes de ciencias biológicas, medicina y ciencias de la salud relacionadas, y otras carreras en las que se imparte esta materia.
Calcium uptake and proton transport by acidocalcisomes of toxoplasma gondii
2011, Rohloff, Peter, Miranda, Kildare, Rodrigues, Juliany C. F., Fang, Jianmin, Galizzi, Melina, Plattner, Helmut, Hentschel, Joachim, Moreno, Silvia N. J.
Acidocalcisomes are acidic calcium stores found in diverse organisms, being conserved from bacteria to humans. They possess an acidic matrix that contains several cations bound to phosphates, which are mainly present in the form of short and long polyphosphate chains. Their matrix is acidified through the action of proton pumps such as a vacuolar proton ATPase and a vacuolar proton pyrophosphatase. Calcium uptake occurs through a Ca2+/H+ countertransporting ATPase located in the membrane of the organelle. Acidocalcisomes have been identified in a variety of microorganisms, including Apicomplexan parasites such as Plasmodium and Eimeria species, and in Toxoplasma gondii. We report the purification and characterization of an acidocalcisome fraction from T. gondii tachyzoites after subcellular fractionation and further discontinuous iodixanol gradient purification. Proton and calcium transport activities in the fraction were characterized by fluorescence microscopy and spectrophotometric methods using acridine orange and arsenazo III, respectively. This work will facilitate the understanding of the function of acidocalcisomes in Apicomplexan parasites, as we can now isolate highly purified fractions that could be used for proteomic analysis to find proteins that may clarify the biogenesis of these
Acidocalcisomes in Apicomplexan parasites
2008-01, Miranda, Kildare, de Souza, Wanderley, Plattner, Helmut, Hentschel, Joachim, Kawazoe, Urara, Fang, Jianmin, Moreno, Silvia N. J.
Acidocalcisomes are acidic calcium stores found in diverse organisms, being conserved from bacteria to man. They posses an acidic matrix that contains several cations bound to phosphates, mainly present in the form of short and long polyphosphate chains. Their matrix is acidified through the action of proton pumps such as a vacuolar proton ATPase and a vacuolar proton pyrophosphatase. The calcium uptake occurs through a Ca2+/H+ counter transporting ATPase located in the membrane of the organelle. Acidocalcisomes have been identified in a variety of microorganisms, including Apicomplexan parasites such as Plasmodium and Eimeria species, and in Toxoplasma gondii. In this paper, we review the structural, biochemical and physiological aspects of acidocalcisomes in Apicomplexan parasites and discuss their functional roles in the maintenance of intracellular ion homeostasis.
Microencapsulation of inorganic nanocrystals into PLGA microsphere vaccines enables their intracellular localization in dendritic cells by electron and fluorescence microscopy
2011-05-10, Schliehe, Christopher, Schliehe, Constanze, Thiry, Marc, Tromsdorf, Ulrich I., Hentschel, Joachim, Weller, Horst, Gröttrup, Marcus
Biodegradable poly-(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres (PLGA-MS) are approved as a drug delivery system in humans and represent a promising antigen delivery device for immunotherapy against cancer. Immune responses following PLGA-MS vaccination require cross-presentation of encapsulated antigen by professional antigen presenting cells (APCs). While the potential of PLGA-MS as vaccine formulations is well established, the intracellular pathway of cross-presentation following phagocytosis of PLGA-MS is still under debate. A part of the controversy stems from the difficulty in unambiguously identifying PLGA-MS within cells. Here we show a novel strategy for the efficient encapsulation of inorganic nanocrystals (NCs) into PLGA-MS as a tool to study their intracellular localization. We microencapsulated NCs as an electron dense marker to study the intracellular localization of PLGA-MS by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and as fluorescent labels for confocal laser scanning microscopy. Using this method, we found PLGA-MS to be rapidly taken up by dendritic cells and macrophages. Co-localization with the lysosomal marker LAMP1 showed a lysosomal storage of PLGA-MS for over two days after uptake, long after the initiation of cross-presentation had occurred. Our data argue against an escape of PLGA-MS from the endosome as has previously been suggested as a mechanism to facilitate cross-presentation of PLGA-MS encapsulated antigen.
Volutin granules of Eimeria parasites are acidic compartments and have physiological and structural characteristics similar to Acidocalcisomes
2011, Soares Medeiros, Lia Carolina, Gomes, Fabio, Maia Maciel, Luis Renato, Seabra, Sergio Henrique, Docampo, Roberto, Moreno, Silvia, Plattner, Helmut, Hentschel, Joachim, Kawazoe, Urara, Barrabin, Hector, de Souza, Wanderley, Damatta, Renato Augusto, Miranda, Kildare
The structural organization of parasites has been the subject of investigation by many groups and has lead to the identification of structures and metabolic pathways that may represent targets for anti-parasitic drugs. A specific group of organelles named acidocalcisomes has been identified in a number of organisms, including the apicomplexan parasites such as Toxoplasma and Plasmodium, where they have been shown to be involved in cation homeostasis, polyphosphate metabolism, and osmoregulation. Their structural counterparts in the apicomplexan parasite Eimeria have not been fully characterized. In this work, the ultrastructural and chemical properties of acidocalcisomes in Eimeria were characterized. Electron microscopy analysis of Eimeria parasites showed the dense organelles called volutin granules similar to acidocalcisomes. Immunolocalization of the vacuolar proton pyrophosphatase, considered as a marker for acidocalcisomes, showed labeling in vesicles of size and distribution similar to the dense organelles seen by electron microscopy. Spectrophotometric measurements of the kinetics of proton uptake showed a vacuolar proton pyrophosphatase activity. X-ray mapping revealed significant amounts of Na, Mg, P, K, Ca, and Zn in their matrix. The results suggest that volutin granules of Eimeria parasites are acidic, dense organelles, and possess structural and chemical properties analogous to those of other acidocalcisomes, suggesting a similar functional role in these parasites.
Ultrastructural characterization of melanosomes of the human pathogenic fungus Fonsecaea pedrosoi
2008-04, Franzen, Anderson J., Cunha, Marcel M. L., Miranda, Kildare, Hentschel, Joachim, Plattner, Helmut, da Silva, Moises B., Salgado, Claudio G., De Souza, Wanderley, Rozental, Sonia
Melanin is a complex polymer widely distributed in nature and has been described as an important virulence factor in pathogenic fungi. In the majority of fungi, the mechanism of melanin formation remains unclear. In Fonsecaea pedrosoi, the major etiologic agent of chromoblastomycosis, melanin is stored in intracellular vesicles, named melanosomes. This paper details the ultrastructural aspects of melanin formation, its storage and transportation to the cell wall in the human pathogenic fungus F. pedrosoi. In this fungus, melanin synthesis within melanosomes also begins with a fibrillar matrix formation, displaying morphological and structural features similar to melanosomes from amphibian and mammalian cells. Silver precipitation based on Fontana-Masson technique for melanin detection and immunocytochemistry showed that melanosome fuses with fungal cell membrane where the melanin is released and reaches the cell wall. Melanin deposition in the fungal cell wall occurs in concentric layers. Antibodies raised against F. pedrosoi melanin revealed the sites of melanin production and storage in the melanosomes. In addition, a preliminary description of the elemental composition of this organelle by X-ray microanalysis and elemental mapping revealed the presence of calcium, phosphorus and iron concentrated in its matrix, suggesting a new functional role for these organelles as iron storage compartments.