Two Types of Liquid Phase Separation Induced by Soft Centrifugation in Aqueous Ethyl Acetate Using Ethanol as Cosolvent
2023-01, Cölfen, Helmut, Rosenberg, Rose, Haffke, Dirk, Stemplinger, Simon, Zemb, Thomas, Horinek, Dominik
Water/ethyl acetate/ethanol is widely used as a “green” extractant system. We show that 2 different types of phase separation can be induced upon centrifugation in this ternary system using ethanol as a cosolvent of water and ethyl acetate: centrifuge-induced criticality and centrifuge-induced emulsification. The expected composition profiles of samples after centrifugation can be represented by bent lines in a ternary phase diagram when gravitational energy is added to the free energy of mixing. The experimental equilibrium composition profiles behave qualitatively as expected and can be predicted using a phenomenological theory of mixing. The concentration gradients are small except near the critical point, as expected for small molecules. Nevertheless, they are usable when accompanied by temperature cycles. These findings open new possibilities of centrifugal separation, even if control is delicate during temperature cycles. These schemes are accessible even at relatively low centrifugation speed for molecules that float and sediment with apparent molar masses several hundred times larger than the molecular mass.
Phase separation of binary mixtures induced by soft centrifugal fields
2021, Zemb, Thomas, Rosenberg, Rose, Marčelja, Stjepan, Haffke, Dirk, Dufrêche, Jean-François, Kunz, Werner, Horinek, Dominik, Cölfen, Helmut
We use the model system ethanol–dodecane to demonstrate that giant critical fluctuations induced by easily accessible weak centrifugal fields as low as 2000g can be observed above the miscibility gap of a binary liquid mixture. Moreover, several degrees above the phase transition, i.e. in the one-phase region, strong gradients of ethanol concentration occur upon centrifugation. In this case, the standard interpretation of sedimentation equilibrium in the analytical ultracentrifuge (AUC) yields an apparent molar mass of ethanol three orders of magnitude higher than the real value. Notably, these composition gradients have no influence on the distribution gradient of solutes such as dyes like Nile red. The thick opaque interphase formed upon centrifugation does not appear as the commonly observed sharp meniscus, but as a turbidity zone, similar to critical opalescence. This layer is a few millimeters thick and separates two fluids with low compositional gradients. All these effects can be qualitatively understood and explained using the Flory–Huggins solution model coupled to classical density functional theory (DFT). In this domain hetero-phase fluctuations can be triggered by gravity even far from the critical point. Taking into account Jean Perrin's approach to external fields in colloids, a self-consistent definition of the Flory effective volume and an explicit calculation of the total free energy per unit volume is possible.