Kroth, Peter G.
Lhcx proteins provide photoprotection via thermal dissipation of absorbed light in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum
2019-09-13, Buck, Jochen Mario, Sherman, Jonathan, Río Bártulos, Carolina, Serif, Manuel, Halder, Marc, Henkel, Jan, Falciatore, Angela, Lavaud, Johann, Kroth, Peter G., Lepetit, Bernard
Diatoms possess an impressive capacity for rapidly inducible thermal dissipation of excess absorbed energy (qE), provided by the xanthophyll diatoxanthin and Lhcx proteins. By knocking out the Lhcx1 and Lhcx2 genes individually in Phaeodactylum tricornutum strain 4 and complementing the knockout lines with different Lhcx proteins, multiple mutants with varying qE capacities are obtained, ranging from zero to high values. We demonstrate that qE is entirely dependent on the concerted action of diatoxanthin and Lhcx proteins, with Lhcx1, Lhcx2 and Lhcx3 having similar functions. Moreover, we establish a clear link between Lhcx1/2/3 mediated inducible thermal energy dissipation and a reduction in the functional absorption cross-section of photosystem II. This regulation of the functional absorption cross-section can be tuned by altered Lhcx protein expression in response to environmental conditions. Our results provide a holistic understanding of the rapidly inducible thermal energy dissipation process and its mechanistic implications in diatoms.
High light acclimation in the secondary plastids containing diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum is triggered by the redox state of the plastoquinone pool
2013-02, Lepetit, Bernard, Sturm, Sabine, Rogato, Alessandra, Gruber, Ansgar, Sachse, Matthias, Falciatore, Angela, Kroth, Peter G., Lavaud, Johann
In diatoms, the process of energy-dependent chlorophyll fluorescence quenching (qE) has an important role in photoprotection. Three components are essential for qE: (1) the light-dependent generation of a transthylakoidal proton gradient; (2) the deepoxidation of the xanthophyll diadinoxanthin (Dd) into diatoxanthin (Dt); and (3) specific nucleus-encoded antenna proteins, called Light Harvesting Complex Protein X (LHCX). We used the model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum to investigate the concerted light acclimation response of the qE key components LHCX, proton gradient, and xanthophyll cycle pigments (Dd+Dt) and to identify the intracellular light-responsive trigger. At high-light exposure, the up-regulation of three of the LHCX genes and the de novo synthesis of Dd+Dt led to a pronounced rise of qE. By inhibiting either the conversion of Dd to Dt or the translation of LHCX genes, qE amplification was abolished and the diatom cells suffered from stronger photoinhibition. Artificial modification of the redox state of the plastoquinone (PQ) pool via 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea and 5-dibromo-6-isopropyl-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone resulted in a disturbance of Dd+Dt synthesis in an opposite way. Moreover, we could increase the transcription of two of the four LHCX genes under low-light conditions by reducing the PQ pool using 5-dibromo-6-isopropyl-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone. Altogether, our results underline the central role of the redox state of the PQ pool in the light acclimation of diatoms. Additionally, they emphasize strong evidence for the existence of a plastid-to-nucleus retrograde signaling mechanism in an organism with plastids that derived from secondary endosymbiosis.
Genome editing in diatoms : achievements and goals
2018-10, Kroth, Peter G., Bones, Atle M., Daboussi, Fayza, Ferrante, Maria I., Jaubert, Marianne, Kolot, Misha, Nymark, Marianne, Río Bártulos, Carolina, Serif, Manuel, Falciatore, Angela
Diatoms are major components of phytoplankton and play a key role in the ecology of aquatic ecosystems. These algae are of great scientific importance for a wide variety of research areas, ranging from marine ecology and oceanography to biotechnology. During the last 20 years, the availability of genomic information on selected diatom species and a substantial progress in genetic manipulation, strongly contributed to establishing diatoms as molecular model organisms for marine biology research. Recently, tailored TALEN endonucleases and the CRISPR/Cas9 system were utilized in diatoms, allowing targeted genetic modifications and the generation of knockout strains. These approaches are extremely valuable for diatom research because breeding, forward genetic screens by random insertion, and chemical mutagenesis are not applicable to the available model species Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Thalassiosira pseudonana, which do not cross sexually in the lab. Here, we provide an overview of the genetic toolbox that is currently available for performing stable genetic modifications in diatoms. We also discuss novel challenges that need to be addressed to fully exploit the potential of these technologies for the characterization of diatom biology and for metabolic engineering.
AUREOCHROME1a-Mediated Induction of the Diatom-Specific Cyclin dsCYC2 Controls the Onset of Cell Division in Diatoms (Phaeodactylum tricornutum)
2013-01, Huysman, Marie, Fortunato, Antonio, Matthijs, Michiel, Schellenberger Costa, Benjamin, Vanderhaeghen, Rudy, Van den Daele, Hilde, Sachse, Matthias, Inzé, Dirk, Bowler, Chris, Kroth, Peter G., Wilhelm, Christian, Falciatore, Angela, Vyverman, Wim, De Veylder, Lieven
Cell division in photosynthetic organisms is tightly regulated by light. Although the light dependency of the onset of the cell cycle has been well characterized in various phototrophs, little is known about the cellular signaling cascades connecting light perception to cell cycle activation and progression. Here, we demonstrate that diatom-specific cyclin 2 (dsCYC2) in Phaeodactylum tricornutum displays a transcriptional peak within 15 min after light exposure, long before the onset of cell division. The product of dsCYC2 binds to the cyclin-dependent kinase CDKA1 and can complement G1 cyclin-deficient yeast. Consistent with the role of dsCYC2 in controlling a G1-to-S light-dependent cell cycle checkpoint, dsCYC2 silencing decreases the rate of cell division in diatoms exposed to light-dark cycles but not to constant light. Transcriptional induction of dsCYC2 is triggered by blue light in a fluence rate-dependent manner. Consistent with this, dsCYC2 is a transcriptional target of the blue light sensor AUREOCHROME1a, which functions synergistically with the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor bZIP10 to induce dsCYC2 transcription. The functional characterization of a cyclin whose transcription is controlled by light and whose activity connects light signaling to cell cycle progression contributes significantly to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying light-dependent cell cycle onset in diatoms.
The diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum adjusts nonphotochemical fluorescence quenching capacity in response to dynamic light via fine-tuned Lhcx and xanthophyll cycle pigment synthesis
2017-04, Lepetit, Bernard, Gélin, Gautier, Lepetit, Mariana, Sturm, Sabine, Vugrinec, Sascha, Rogato, Alessandra, Kroth, Peter G., Falciatore, Angela, Lavaud, Johann
Diatoms contain a highly flexible capacity to dissipate excessively absorbed light by nonphotochemical fluorescence quenching (NPQ) based on the light-induced conversion of diadinoxanthin (Dd) into diatoxanthin (Dt) and the presence of Lhcx proteins. Their NPQ fine regulation on the molecular level upon a shift to dynamic light conditions is unknown.
We investigated the regulation of Dd + Dt amount, Lhcx gene and protein synthesis and NPQ capacity in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum after a change from continuous low light to 3 d of sine (SL) or fluctuating (FL) light conditions. Four P. tricornutum strains with different NPQ capacities due to different expression of Lhcx1 were included.
All strains responded to dynamic light comparably, independently of initial NPQ capacity. During SL, NPQ capacity was strongly enhanced due to a gradual increase of Lhcx2 and Dd + Dt amount. During FL, cells enhanced their NPQ capacity on the first day due to increased Dd + Dt, Lhcx2 and Lhcx3; already by the second day light acclimation was accomplished. While quenching efficiency of Dt was strongly lowered during SL conditions, it remained high throughout the whole FL exposure.
Our results highlight a more balanced and cost-effective photoacclimation strategy of P. tricornutum under FL than under SL conditions.