How to convince the vaccine‐hesitant? : An ease‐of‐access nudge, but not risk‐related information increased Covid vaccination‐related behaviors in the unvaccinated
2023-08-08, Giese, Helge, Neth, Hansjörg, Wegwarth, Odette, Gaissmaier, Wolfgang, Stok, F. Marijn
In this study, we contrast how different benefit and harm information formats and the presence or absence of an ease‐of‐access nudge may facilitate COVID vaccination uptake for a sample of 620 unvaccinated Dutch adults at a timepoint when the vaccine had been widely available for more than a month. Using a 2 × 2 between‐subjects factorial design, we varied the information format on mRNA COVID vaccination statistics (generic text vs. facts box) and an affirmative nudge emphasizing the ease of making a vaccination appointment (absent vs. present). We assessed the acceptance of the vaccination information provided, perceptions on the vaccination, and whether participants directly visited a COVID vaccination appointment website. Whereas the facts box did not significantly affect participants' information acceptance, vaccination attitudes, intentions, and link clicking, the affirmative nudge alongside an online link systematically increased the likelihood of clicking on the link to make a vaccination appointment. A verbal nudge emphasizing the ease of vaccine accessibility is more likely to increase vaccination uptake in an unvaccinated population than informational campaigns on vaccine effectiveness.
Risk-Adjusted Cancer Screening and Prevention (RiskAP) : Complementing Screening for Early Disease Detection by a Learning Screening Based on Risk Factors
2022-04-27, Schmutzler, Rita K., Schmitz-Luhn, Björn, Borisch, Bettina, Devilee, Peter, Eccles, Diana, Hall, Per, Balmaña, Judith, Boccia, Stefania, Dabrock, Peter, Gaissmaier, Wolfgang
Background: Risk-adjusted cancer screening and prevention is a promising and continuously emerging option for improving cancer prevention. It is driven by increasing knowledge of risk factors and the ability to determine them for individual risk prediction. However, there is a knowledge gap between evidence of increased risk and evidence of the effectiveness and efficiency of clinical preventive interventions based on increased risk. This gap is, in particular, aggravated by the extensive availability of genetic risk factor diagnostics, since the question of appropriate preventive measures immediately arises when an increased risk is identified. However, collecting proof of effective preventive measures, ideally by prospective randomized preventive studies, typically requires very long periods of time, while the knowledge about an increased risk immediately creates a high demand for action.
Summary: Therefore, we propose a risk-adjusted prevention concept that is based on the best current evidence making needed and appropriate preventive measures available, and which is constantly evaluated through outcome evaluation, and continuously improved based on these results. We further discuss the structural and procedural requirements as well as legal and socioeconomical aspects relevant for the implementation of this concept.
Influence of stress on physiological synchrony in a stressful versus non-stressful group setting
2021-09, Denk, Bernadette F., Dimitroff, Stephanie J., Meier, Maria, Benz, Annika B. E., Bentele, Ulrike U., Unternaehrer, Eva, Popovic, Nathalie F., Gaissmaier, Wolfgang, Pruessner, Jens C.
Physiological synchrony (PS) is defined as the co-occurrence and interdependence of physiological activity between interaction partners. Previous research has uncovered numerous influences on the extent of PS, such as relationship type or individual characteristics. Here, we investigate the influence of acute stress on PS. We do so in a setting in which PS was not promoted, but contact between group members was explicitly minimized. We reanalyzed cortisol, alpha-amylase, and subjective stress data from 138 participants (mean age = [Formula: see text], 47.1% female) who previously underwent the Trier Social Stress Test for groups (TSST-G) or a non-stressful control task together, collected as part of a larger project by Popovic et al. (Sci Rep 10: 7845, 2020). Using a stability and influence model, an established method to test for synchrony, we tested whether individuals' cortisol and alpha-amylase concentrations could be predicted by group members' levels. We found cortisol PS in participants who were in the same group, the extent of which was stronger in the non-stressful control condition. For alpha-amylase, participants were synchronized as well; furthermore, there was an interaction between previous stress levels and PS. This suggests that while synchrony of both stress markers can occur in group settings even with spurious interaction, stressor exposure might attenuate its extent. We argue that if PS occurs in a sample where interaction was minimal, the phenomenon might be more widespread than previously thought. Furthermore, stressor exposure might influence whether a situation allows for PS. We conclude that PS should be investigated within group settings with various degrees of social interaction to further expose mechanisms of and influence on PS.
Do You Think It's Biased? : How To Ask For The Perception Of Media Bias
2021, Spinde, Timo, Kreuter, Christina, Gaissmaier, Wolfgang, Hamborg, Felix, Gipp, Bela, Giese, Helge
Media coverage possesses a substantial effect on the public perception of events. The way media frames events can significantly alter the beliefs and perceptions of our society. Nevertheless, nearly all media outlets are known to report news in a biased way. While such bias can be introduced by altering the word choice or omitting information, the perception of bias also varies largely depending on a reader's personal background. Therefore, media bias is a very complex construct to identify and analyze. Even though media bias has been the subject of many studies, previous assessment strategies are oversimplified, lack overlap and empirical evaluation. Thus, this study aims to develop a scale that can be used as a reliable standard to evaluate article bias. To name an example: Intending to measure bias in a news article, should we ask, “How biased is the article?” or should we instead ask, “How did the article treat the American president?”. We conducted a literature search to find 824 relevant questions about text perception in previous research on the topic. In a multi-iterative process, we summarized and condensed these questions semantically to conclude a complete and representative set of possible question types about bias. The final set consisted of 25 questions with varying answering formats, 17 questions using semantic differentials, and six ratings of feelings. We tested each of the questions on 190 articles with overall 663 participants to identify how well the questions measure an article's perceived bias. Our results show that 21 final items are suitable and reliable for measuring the perception of media bias. We publish the final set of questions on http://bias-guestion-tree.gipplab.org/.
Communicating for the Safe Use of Medicines : Progress and Directions for the 2020s Promoted by the Special Interest Group of the International Society of Pharmacovigilance
2023, Bahri, Priya, Bowring, Geoffrey, Edwards, Brian D., Anton, Christopher, Aronson, Jeffrey K., Caro-Rojas, Angela, Hugman, Bruce P. J., Mol, Peter G., Gaissmaier, Wolfgang, Neth, Hansjörg
Perspectives on the 2×2 Matrix : Solving Semantically Distinct Problems Based on a Shared Structure of Binary Contingencies
2021-02-09, Neth, Hansjörg, Gradwohl, Nico, Streeb, Dirk, Keim, Daniel A., Gaissmaier, Wolfgang
Cognition is both empowered and limited by representations. The matrix lens model explicates tasks that are based on frequency counts, conditional probabilities, and binary contingencies in a general fashion. Based on a structural analysis of such tasks, the model links several problems and semantic domains and provides a new perspective on representational accounts of cognition that recognizes representational isomorphs as opportunities, rather than as problems. The shared structural construct of a 2×2 matrix supports a set of generic tasks and semantic mappings that provide a unifying framework for understanding problems and defining scientific measures. Our model's key explanatory mechanism is the adoption of particular perspectives on a 2×2 matrix that categorizes the frequency counts of cases by some condition, treatment, risk, or outcome factor. By the selective steps of filtering, framing, and focusing on specific aspects, the measures used in various semantic domains negotiate distinct trade-offs between abstraction and specialization. As a consequence, the transparent communication of such measures must explicate the perspectives encapsulated in their derivation. To demonstrate the explanatory scope of our model, we use it to clarify theoretical debates on biases and facilitation effects in Bayesian reasoning and to integrate the scientific measures from various semantic domains within a unifying framework. A better understanding of problem structures, representational transparency, and the role of perspectives in the scientific process yields both theoretical insights and practical applications.
Conformist social learning leads to self-organised prevention against adverse bias in risky decision making
2022-05-10, Toyokawa, Wataru, Gaissmaier, Wolfgang
Given the ubiquity of potentially adverse behavioural bias owing to myopic trial-and-error learning, it seems paradoxical that improvements in decision-making performance through conformist social learning, a process widely considered to be bias amplification, still prevail in animal collective behaviour. Here we show, through model analyses and large-scale interactive behavioural experiments with 585 human subjects, that conformist influence can indeed promote favourable risk taking in repeated experience-based decision making, even though many individuals are systematically biased towards adverse risk aversion. Although strong positive feedback conferred by copying the majority's behaviour could result in unfavourable informational cascades, our differential equation model of collective behavioural dynamics identified a key role for increasing exploration by negative feedback arising when a weak minority influence undermines the inherent behavioural bias. This 'collective behavioural rescue', emerging through coordination of positive and negative feedback, highlights a benefit of collective learning in a broader range of environmental conditions than previously assumed and resolves the ostensible paradox of adaptive collective behavioural flexibility under conformist influences.
How do we raise media bias awareness effectively? : Effects of visualizations to communicate bias
2022, Spinde, Timo, Jeggle, Christin, Haupt, Magdalena, Gaissmaier, Wolfgang, Giese, Helge
Media bias has a substantial impact on individual and collective perception of news. Effective communication that may counteract its potential negative effects still needs to be developed. In this article, we analyze how to facilitate the detection of media bias with visual and textual aids in the form of (a) a forewarning message, (b) text annotations, and (c) political classifiers. In an online experiment, we randomized 985 participants to receive a biased liberal or conservative news article in any combination of the three aids. Meanwhile, their subjective perception of media bias in this article, attitude change, and political ideology were assessed. Both the forewarning message and the annotations increased media bias awareness, whereas the political classification showed no effect. Incongruence between an articles’ political position and individual political orientation also increased media bias awareness. Visual aids did not mitigate this effect. Likewise, attitudes remained unaltered.
Current Challenges When Using Numbers in Patient Decision Aids : Advanced Concepts
2021, Trevena, Lyndal J., Bonner, Carissa, Okan, Yasmina, Peters, Ellen, Gaissmaier, Wolfgang, Han, Paul K. J., Ozanne, Elissa, Timmermans, Danielle, Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J.
Decision aid developers have to convey complex task-specific numeric information in a way that minimizes bias and promotes understanding of the options available within a particular decision. Whereas our companion paper summarizes fundamental issues, this article focuses on more complex, task-specific aspects of presenting numeric information in patient decision aids.
As part of the International Patient Decision Aids Standards third evidence update, we gathered an expert panel of 9 international experts who revised and expanded the topics covered in the 2013 review working in groups of 2 to 3 to update the evidence, based on their expertise and targeted searches of the literature. The full panel then reviewed and provided additional revisions, reaching consensus on the final version.
Five of the 10 topics addressed more complex task-specific issues. We found strong evidence for using independent event rates and/or incremental absolute risk differences for the effect size of test and screening outcomes. Simple visual formats can help to reduce common judgment biases and enhance comprehension but can be misleading if not well designed. Graph literacy can moderate the effectiveness of visual formats and hence should be considered in tool design. There is less evidence supporting the inclusion of personalized and interactive risk estimates.
More complex numeric information. such as the size of the benefits and harms for decision options, can be better understood by using incremental absolute risk differences alongside well-designed visual formats that consider the graph literacy of the intended audience. More research is needed into when and how to use personalized and/or interactive risk estimates because their complexity and accessibility may affect their feasibility in clinical practice.