Intramolecular Sensitization of Photocleavage of the Photolabile 2-(2-Nitrophenyl)propoxycarbonyl (NPPOC) Protecting Group: Photoproducts and Photokinetics of the Release of Nucleosides
2008, Wöll, Dominik, Smirnova, Julia, Galetskaya, Marina, Prykota, Tamara, Bühler, Jochen, Stengele, Klaus-Peter, Pfleiderer, Wolfgang, Steiner, Ulrich
Novel photolabile protecting groups based on the 2-(2-nitrophenyl)propoxycarbonyl (NPPOC) group with a covalently linked thioxanthone as an intramolecular triplet sensitizer exhibit significantly enhanced light sensitivity under continuous illumination. Herein we present a detailed study of the photokinetics and photoproducts of nucleosides caged with these new protecting groups. Relative to the parent NPPOC group, the light sensitivity of the new photolabile protecting groups is enhanced by up to a factor of 21 at 366 nm and is still quite high at 405 nm, the wavelength at which the sensitivity of the parent compound is practically zero. A new pathway for deprotection of the NPPOC group proceeding through a nitroso benzylalcohol intermediate has been discovered to complement the main mechanism, which involves elimination. Under standard conditions of lithographic DNA-chip synthesis, some of the new compounds, while maintaining the same chip quality, react ten times faster than the unmodified NPPOC-protected nucleosides.
On the Mechanism of Intramolecular Sensitization of Photocleavage of the 2-(2-Nitrophenyl)propoxycarbonyl (NPPOC) Protecting Group
2007, Wöll, Dominik, Laimgruber, Stefan, Galetskaya, Marina, Smirnova, Julia, Pfleiderer, Wolfgang, Heinz, Björn, Gilch, Peter, Steiner, Ulrich
A spectroscopic study of a variety of covalently linked thioxanthone(TX)-linker-2-(2-nitrophenyl)propoxycarbonyl(NPPOC)-substrate conjugates is presented. Herein, the TX chromophore functions as an intramolecular sensitizer to the NPPOC moiety, a photolabile protecting group used in photolithographic DNA chip synthesis. The rate of electronic energy transfer between TX and NPPOC was quantified by means of stationary fluorescence as well as nanosecond and femtosecond time-resolved laser spectroscopy. A dual mechanism of triplet-triplet energy transfer has been observed comprising a slower mechanism involving the T1(*) state of TX with linker-length-dependent time constants longer than 20 ns and a fast mechanism with linker-length-dependent time constants shorter than 3 ns. Evidence is provided that the latter mechanism is due to energy transfer from the T2(n*) state which is in fast equilibrium with the fluorescent S1(*) state. In the case of direct linkage between the aromatic rings of TX and NPPOC, the spectroscopic properties are indicative of one united chromophore which, however, still shows the typical NPPOC cleavage reaction triggered by intramolecular hydrogen atom transfer to the nitro group.
Synthesis of caged nucleosides with photoremovable protecting groups linked to intramolecular antennae
2005, Smirnova, Julia, Wöll, Dominik, Pfleiderer, Wolfgang, Steiner, Ulrich
Based on the [2-(2-nitrophenyl)propoxy]carbonyl (nppoc) group, six new photolabile protecting groups (2, 8, 9b, 16b, 25b, and 26), each covalently linked to a 9H-thioxanthen-9-one (Tx) unit functioning as an intramolecular triplet sensitizer, were synthesized. Linkers were introduced between the Me group or the aromatic ring of nppoc and the 2-position of Tx by means of classical organic synthesis combined with Pd catalyzed CC coupling reactions. The new photolabile protecting groups to be used in light-directed synthesis of DNA chips were attached to the 5-O-atom of thymidine via a carbonate linkage, giving rise to the caged nucleosides 7, 11, 13, 19, 20, and 30.