Relative Resolution : A Multipole Approximation at Appropriate Distances
2019, Chaimovich, Aviel, Kremer, Kurt, Peter, Christine
Recently, we introduced Relative Resolution as a hybrid formalism for fluid mixtures . The essence of this approach is that it switches molecular resolution in terms or relative separation: While nearest neighbors are characterized by a detailed fine-grained model, other neighbors are characterized by a simplified coarse-grained model. Once the two models are analytically connected with each other via energy conservation, Relative Resolution can capture the structural and thermal behavior of (nonpolar) multi-component and multi-phase systems across state space. The current work is a natural continuation of our original communication . Most importantly, we present the comprehensive mathematics of Relative Resolution, basically casting it as a multipole approximation at appropriate distances; the current set of equations importantly applies for all systems (e.g, polar molecules). Besides, we continue examining the capability of our multiscale approach in molecular simulations, importantly showing that we can successfully retrieve not just the statics but also the dynamics of liquid systems. We finally conclude by discussing how Relative Resolution is the inherent variant of the famous "cell-multipole" approach for molecular simulations.
Relative resolution : A hybrid formalism for fluid mixtures
2015, Chaimovich, Aviel, Peter, Christine, Kremer, Kurt
We show here that molecular resolution is inherently hybrid in terms of relative separation. While nearest neighbors are characterized by a fine-grained (geometrically detailed) model, other neighbors are characterized by a coarse-grained (isotropically simplified) model. We notably present an analytical expression for relating the two models via energy conservation. This hybrid framework is correspondingly capable of retrieving the structural and thermal behavior of various multi-component and multi-phase fluids across state space.
Computational Studies of Biomembrane Systems : Theoretical Considerations, Simulation Models, and Applications
2014, Deserno, Markus, Kremer, Kurt, Paulsen, Harald, Peter, Christine, Schmid, Friederike
This chapter summarizes several approaches combining theory, simulation, and experiment that aim for a better understanding of phenomena in lipid bilayers and membrane protein systems, covering topics such as lipid rafts, membrane-mediated interactions, attraction between transmembrane proteins, and aggregation in biomembranes leading to large superstructures such as the lightharvesting complex of green plants. After a general overview of theoretical considerations and continuum theory of lipid membranes we introduce different options for simulations of biomembrane systems, addressing questions such as: What can be learned from generic models? When is it expedient to go beyond them? And, what are the merits and challenges for systematic coarse graining and quasi-atomistic coarse-grained models that ensure a certain chemical specificity?
Derivation of Coarse Grained Models for Multiscale Simulation of Liquid Crystalline Phase Transitions
2012-07-26, Mukherjee, Biswaroop, Site, Luigi Delle, Kremer, Kurt, Peter, Christine
We present a systematic derivation of a coarse grained (CG) model for molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of a liquid crystalline (LC) compound containing an azobenzene mesogen. The model aims at a later use in a multiscale modeling approach to study liquid crystalline phase transitions that are (photo)induced by the trans/cis photoisomerization of the mesogen. One of the major challenges in the coarse graining process is the development of models that are for a given chemical system structurally consistent with for example an all-atom reference model and reproduce relevant thermodynamic properties such as the LC phase behavior around the state point of interest. The reduction of number of degrees of freedom makes the resulting coarse models by construction state point dependent; that is, they cannot easily be transferred to a range of temperatures, densities, system compositions, etc. These are significant challenges, in particular if one wants to study LC phase transitions (thermally or photoinduced). In the present paper we show how one can systematically derive a CG model for a LC molecule that is highly consistent with an atomistic description by choosing an appropriate state point for the reference simulation. The reference state point is the supercooled liquid just below the smectic-isotropic phase transition which is characterized by a high degree of local nematic order while being overall isotropic. With the resulting CG model it is possible to switch between the atomistic and the CG levels (and vice versa) in a seamless manner maintaining values of all the relevant order parameters which describe the smectic A (smA) state. This model will allow us in the future to link large length scale and long time scale CG simulations of the LC state with chemically accurate QM/MM simulations of the photoisomerization process.
Single molecule translocation in smectics illustrates the challenge for time-mapping in simulations on multiple scales
2017-09-21, Mukherjee, Biswaroop, Peter, Christine, Kremer, Kurt
Understanding the connections between the characteristic dynamical time scales associated with a coarse-grained (CG) and a detailed representation is central to the applicability of the coarse-graining methods to understand molecular processes. The process of coarse graining leads to an accelerated dynamics, owing to the smoothening of the underlying free-energy landscapes. Often a single time-mapping factor is used to relate the time scales associated with the two representations. We critically examine this idea using a model system ideally suited for this purpose. Single molecular transport properties are studied via molecular dynamics simulations of the CG and atomistic representations of a liquid crystalline, azobenzene containing mesogen, simulated in the smectic and the isotropic phases. The out-of-plane dynamics in the smectic phase occurs via molecular hops from one smectic layer to the next. Hopping can occur via two mechanisms, with and without significant reorientation. The out-of-plane transport can be understood as a superposition of two (one associated with each mode of transport) independent continuous time random walks for which a single time-mapping factor would be rather inadequate. A comparison of the free-energy surfaces, relevant to the out-of-plane transport, qualitatively supports the above observations. Thus, this work underlines the need for building CG models that exhibit both structural and dynamical consistency to the underlying atomistic model.
Derivation of coarse-grained simulation models of chlorophyll molecules in lipid bilayers for applications in light harvesting systems
2015, Debnath, Ananya, Wiegand, Sabine, Paulsen, Harald, Kremer, Kurt, Peter, Christine
The correct interplay of interactions between protein, pigment and lipid molecules is highly relevant for our understanding of the association behavior of the light harvesting complex (LHCII) of green plants. To cover the relevant time and length scales in this multicomponent system, a multi-scale simulation ansatz is employed that subsequently uses a classical all atomistic (AA) model to derive a suitable coarse grained (CG) model which can be backmapped into the AA resolution, aiming for a seamless conversion between two scales. Such an approach requires a faithful description of not only the protein and lipid components, but also the interaction functions for the indispensable pigment molecules, chlorophyll b and chlorophyll a (referred to as chl b/chl a). In this paper we develop a CG model for chl b and chl a in a dipalmitoylphosphatidyl choline (DPPC) bilayer system. The structural properties and the distribution behavior of chl within the lipid bilayer in the CG simulations are consistent with those of AA reference simulations. The non-bonded potentials are parameterized such that they fit to the thermodynamics based MARTINI force-field for the lipid bilayer and the protein. The CG simulation shows chl aggregation in the lipid bilayer which is supported by fluorescence quenching experiments. It is shown that the derived chl model is well suited for CG simulations of stable, structurally consistent, trimeric LHCII and can in the future be used to study their large scale aggregation behavior.
Dual translocation pathways in smectic liquid crystals facilitated by molecular flexibility
2013, Mukherjee, Biswaroop, Peter, Christine, Kremer, Kurt
We investigate translocation mechanisms in smectic A liquid crystals (LCs) by a realistic, coarse-grained model of a LC compound comprising a stiff azobenzene core with flexible tails. We observe that the molecules can permeate from one smectic layer to the next via two different mechanisms, with and without significant reorientation, the former being facilitated through transverse interlayer intermediates. This is possible due to the intrinsic flexibility of the molecules. The two processes lead to characteristic signatures in the Van Hove self-correlation function, which can also be observed experimentally.
Systematic comparison of model polymer nanocomposite mechanics
2016-10-01, Xiao, Senbo, Peter, Christine, Kremer, Kurt
Polymer nanocomposites render a range of outstanding materials from natural products such as silk, sea shells and bones, to synthesized nanoclay or carbon nanotube reinforced polymer systems. In contrast to the fast expanding interest in this type of material, the fundamental mechanisms of their mixing, phase behavior and reinforcement, especially for higher nanoparticle content as relevant for bio-inorganic composites, are still not fully understood. Although polymer nanocomposites exhibit diverse morphologies, qualitatively their mechanical properties are believed to be governed by a few parameters, namely their internal polymer network topology, nanoparticle volume fraction, particle surface properties and so on. Relating material mechanics to such elementary parameters is the purpose of this work. By taking a coarse-grained molecular modeling approach, we study an range of different polymer nanocomposites. We vary polymer nanoparticle connectivity, surface geometry and volume fraction to systematically study rheological/mechanical properties. Our models cover different materials, and reproduce key characteristics of real nanocomposites, such as phase separation, mechanical reinforcement. The results shed light on establishing elementary structure, property and function relationship of polymer nanocomposites.
Computer Simulations of Soft Matter : Linking the Scales
2014, Potestio, Raffaello, Peter, Christine, Kremer, Kurt
In the last few decades, computer simulations have become a fundamental tool in the field of soft matter science, allowing researchers to investigate the properties of a large variety of systems. Nonetheless, even the most powerful computational resources presently available are, in general, sufficient to simulate complex biomolecules only for a few nanoseconds. This limitation is often circumvented by using coarse-grained models, in which only a subset of the system’s degrees of freedom is retained; for an effective and insightful use of these simplified models; however, an appropriate parametrization of the interactions is of fundamental importance. Additionally, in many cases the removal of fine-grained details in a specific, small region of the system would destroy relevant features; such cases can be treated using dual-resolution simulation methods, where a subregion of the system is described with high resolution, and a coarse-grained representation is employed in the rest of the simulation domain. In this review we discuss the basic notions of coarse-graining theory, presenting the most common methodologies employed to build low-resolution descriptions of a system and putting particular emphasis on their similarities and differences. The AdResS and H-AdResS adaptive resolution simulation schemes are reported as examples of dual-resolution approaches, especially focusing in particular on their theoretical background.
Structure-based coarse-graining in liquid slabs
2012-08-14, Jochum, Mara, Andrienko, Denis, Kremer, Kurt, Peter, Christine
Structure-based coarse-graining relies on matching the pair correlation functions of a reference (atomistic) and a coarse-grained system. As such, it is designed for systems with uniform density distributions. Here, we demonstrate how it can be generalized for inhomogeneous systems by coarse-graining slabs of liquid water and methanol in vacuum, as well as a single benzene molecule at the water-vacuum interface. Our conclusion is that coarse-graining performed in inhomogeneous systems improves thermodynamic properties and the structure of interfaces without significant alterations to the local structure of the bulk liquid.