Modified Scaling Relation for the Random-Field Ising Model
1998, Nowak, Ulrich, Usadel, Klaus-Dieter, Esser, J.
We investigate the low-temperature critical behavior of the three-dimensional random-field Ising ferromagnet. By a scaling analysis we find that in the limit of temperature T → 0 the usual scaling relations have to be modified as far as the exponent α of the specific heat is concerned. At zero temperature, the Rushbrooke equation is modified to α + 2β + γ = 1, an equation which we expect to be valid also for other systems with similar critical behavior. We test the scaling theory numerically for the three-dimensional random-field Ising system with Gaussian probability distribution of the random fields by a combination of calculations of exact ground states with an integer optimization algorithm and Monte Carlo methods. By a finite-size scaling analysis we calculate the critical exponents ν ≈ 1.0, β ≈ 0.05, ӯ ≈ 2.9, γ ≈ 1.5 and α ≈ −0.55.
Exact ground-state properties of disordered Ising systems
1997, Esser, J., Nowak, Ulrich, Usadel, Klaus-Dieter
Exact ground states are calculated with an integer optimization algorithm for two- and three-dimensional site-diluted Ising antiferromagnets in a field (DAFF) and random field Ising ferromagnets (RFIM), the latter with Gaussian- and bimodal-distributed random fields. We investigate the structure and the size distribution of the domains of the ground state and compare it to earlier results from Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for finite temperature. Although DAFF and RFIM are thought to be in the same universality class we found differences between these systems as far as the distribution of domain sizes is concerned. In the limit of strong disorder for the DAFF in two and three dimensions the ground states consist of domains with a broad size distribution that can be described by a power law with exponential cutoff. For the RFIM this is only true in two dimensions while in three dimensions above the critical field where long-range order breaks down the system consists of two infinite interpenetrating domains of up and down spins the system is in a two-domain state. For DAFF and RFIM the structure of the domains of finite size is fractal and the fractal dimensions for the DAFF and the RFIM agree within our numerical accuracy supporting that DAFF and RFIM are in the same universality class. Also, the DAFF ground-state properties agree with earlier results from MC simulations in the whole whereas there are essential differences between our exact ground-state calculations and earlier MC simulations for the RFIM which suggested that there are differences between the fractality of domains in RFIM and DAFF. Additionally, we show that for the case of higher disorder there are strong deviations from Imry-Ma-type arguments for RFIM and DAFF in two and three dimensions.
Dynamics of domains in diluted antiferromagnets
1996, Nowak, Ulrich, Esser, J., Usadel, Klaus-Dieter
We investigate the dynamics of two-dimensional site-diluted Ising antiferromagnets. In an external magnetic field these highly disordered magnetic systems have a domain structure which consists of fractal domains with sizes on a broad range length scales. We focus on the dynamics of these systems during the relaxation from a long-range ordered initial state to the disordered fractal-domain state after applying an external magnetic field. The equilibrium state with applied field consists of fractal domains with a size distribution which follows a power law with an exponential cutoff. The dynamics of the systems can be understood as a growth process of this fractal-domain state in such a way that the equilibrium distribution of domains develops during time. Following these ideas quantitatively we derive a simple description of the time dependence of the order parameter. The agreement with simulations is excellent.