Bahnmüller, Ulrich

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On the Shape-Selected, Ligand-Free Preparation of Hybrid Perovskite (CH3NH3PbBr3) Microcrystals and Their Suitability as Model-System for Single-Crystal Studies of Optoelectronic Properties

2021-11-13, Bahnmüller, Ulrich, Kuper, Henning, Seewald, Tobias, Yalҫinkaya, Yenal, Becker, Jörg August, Schmidt-Mende, Lukas, Weber, Stefan A. L., Polarz, Sebastian

Hybrid perovskite materials are one of the most promising candidates for optoelectronic applications, e.g., solar cells and LEDs, which can be produced at low cost compared to established materials. Although this field of research has seen a huge upsurge in the past decade, there is a major lack in understanding the underlying processes, such as shape-property relationships and the role of defects. Our aerosol-assisted synthesis pathway offers the possibility to obtain methylammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr3) microcrystals from a liquid single source precursor. The differently shaped particles are aligned on several substrates, without using a directing agent or other additives. The obtained particles show good stability under dry conditions. This allows us to characterize these materials and their pure surfaces at the single-crystal level using time- and spatially resolved methods, without any influences of size-dependent effects. By optimizing the precursor for the aerosol process, we were able to eliminate any purification steps and use the materials as processed. In addition, we performed theoretical simulations to deepen the understanding of the underlying processes in the formation of the different crystal facets and their specific properties. The model system presented provides insights into the shape-related properties of MAPbBr3 single crystals and their directed but ligand-free synthesis.

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Nonequilibrium Catalyst Materials Stabilized by the Aerogel Effect : Solvent Free and Continuous Synthesis of Gamma-Alumina with Hierarchical Porosity

2017-04-05, Hagedorn, Kay, Bahnmüller, Ulrich, Schachtschneider, Andreas, Frei, Maren, Li, Wenyu, Schmedt auf der Günne, Jörn, Polarz, Sebastian

Heterogeneous catalysis can be understood as a phenomenon which strongly relies on the occurrence of thermodynamically less favorable surface motifs like defects or high-energy planes. Because it is very difficult to control such parameters, an interesting approach is to explore metastable polymorphs of the respective solids. The latter is not an easy task as well because the emergence of polymorphs is dictated by kinetic control and materials with high surface area are required. Further, an inherent problem is that high temperatures required for many catalytic reactions can also induce the transformation to the thermodynamically stable modification. Alumina (Al2O3) was selected for the current study as it exists not only in the stable α-form but also as the metastable γ-polymorph. Kinetic control was realized by combining an aerosol-based synthesis approach and a highly reactive, volatile precursor (AlMe3). Monolithic flakes of Al2O3 with a highly porous, hierarchical structure (micro-, meso-, and macropores connected to each other) resemble so-called aerogels, which are normally known only from wet sol-gel routes. Monolothic aerogel flakes can be separated from the gas phase without supercritical drying, which in principle allows for a continuous preparation of the materials. Process parameters can be adjusted so the material is composed exclusively of the desired γ-modification. The γ-Al2O3 aerogels were much more stable than they should be, and even after extended (80 h) high-temperature (1200 °C) treatment only an insignificant part has converted to the thermodynamically stable α-phase. The latter phenomenon was assigned to the extraordinary thermal insulation properties of aerogels. Finally, the material was tested concerning the catalytic dehydration of 1-hexanol. Comparison to other Al2O3 materials with the same surface area demonstrates that the γ-Al2O3 are superior in activity and selectivity regarding the formation of the desired product 1-hexene.