Enzymatic diagnosis of neuronal lipofuscinoses in dried blood spots using substrates for concomitant tandem mass spectrometry and fluorimetry
2021-01, Maeser, Stefan, Petre, Brînduşa-Alina, Ion, Laura, Rawer, Stephan, Kohlschütter, Alfried, Santorelli, Filippo M, Simonati, Alessandro, Schulz, Angela, Przybylski, Michael
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are a group of neurodegenerative diseases predominantly in childhood that are characterized by psychomotor deterioration, epilepsy, and early death of patients. The NCLs analyzed in the present study are caused by defects of the specific enzymes, CLN1 (palmitoyl protein thioesterase 1; PPT1), CLN2 (tripeptidyl peptidase 1; TPP1), and CLN10 (cathepsin D). Specific and sensitive diagnostic assays of NCLs were the main goal of this study. They are of increasing importance, particularly since enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for NCL2 has recently become available for clinical treatment, and ERTs for further NCLs are under development. Here, we report specific and sensitive determinations for CLN1, CLN2, and CLN10 on dried blood spots by tandem mass spectrometry using multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS). Identical substrates suitable for (i) fluorimetric determination of single enzymes and (ii) for MRM-MS determination of multiple enzymes were synthesized by chemical coupling of alkyl-umbelliferone building blocks with the corresponding peptidyl-substrate groups recognized by the target enzyme. Enzymatic determinations were performed both by fluorimetry and MRM-MS in patients with NCL1, NCL2, and NCL10 and showed good agreement in single assays. Moreover, duplex and triplex determinations were successfully performed for NCL1, NCL2, and NCL10. Specific peptidyl-(4-alkyl-umbelliferone) substrates were also synthesized for mass spectrometric determinations of different cathepsins (cathepsins-D, -F, and -B), to provide a differentiation of proteolytic specificities.
Molecular characterization of the β‐amyloid(4‐10) epitope of plaque specific Aβ antibodies by affinity‐mass spectrometry using alanine site mutation
2018-01, Stefanescu, Raluca, Lupu, Loredana, Manea, Marilena, Iacob, Roxana E., Przybylski, Michael
Alzheimer disease is a neurodegenerative disease affecting an increasing number of patients worldwide. Current therapeutic strategies are directed to molecules capable to block the aggregation of the β‐amyloid(1‐42) (Aβ) peptide and its shorter naturally occurring peptide fragments into toxic oligomers and amyloid fibrils. Aβ‐specific antibodies have been recently developed as powerful antiaggregation tools. The identification and functional characterization of the epitope structures of Aβ antibodies contributes to the elucidation of their mechanism of action in the human organism. In previous studies, the Aβ(4‐10) peptide has been identified as an epitope for the polyclonal anti‐Aβ(1‐42) antibody that has been shown capable to reduce amyloid deposition in a transgenic Alzheimer disease mouse model. To determine the functional significance of the amino acid residues involved in binding to the antibody, we report here the effects of alanine single‐site mutations within the Aβ‐epitope sequence on the antigen‐antibody interaction. Specific identification of the essential affinity preserving mutant peptides was obtained by exposing a Sepharose‐immobilized antibody column to an equimolar mixture of mutant peptides, followed by analysis of bound peptides using high‐resolution MALDI‐Fourier transform‐Ion Cyclotron Resonance mass spectrometry. For the polyclonal antibody, affinity was preserved in the H6A, D7A, S8A, and G9A mutants but was lost in the F4, R5, and Y10 mutants, indicating these residues as essential amino acids for binding. Enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assays confirmed the binding differences of the mutant peptides to the polyclonal antibody. In contrast, the mass spectrometric analysis of the mutant Aβ(4‐10) peptides upon affinity binding to a monoclonal anti‐Aβ(1‐17) antibody showed complete loss of binding by Ala‐site mutation of any residue of the Aβ(4‐10) epitope. Surface plasmon resonance affinity determination of wild‐type Aβ(1‐17) to the monoclonal Aβ antibody provided a binding constant KD in the low nanomolar range. These results provide valuable information in the elucidation of the binding mechanism and the development of Aβ‐specific antibodies with improved therapeutic efficacy.
An HLA-B27 Homodimer Specific Antibody Recognizes a Discontinuous Mixed-Disulfide Epitope as Identified by Affinity-Mass Spectrometry
2016, Iuraşcu, Marius-Ionuţ, Marroquin Belaunzanar, Osiris, Cozma, Claudia, Petrausch, Ulf, Renner, Christoph, Przybylski, Michael
HLA-B27 homodimer formation is believed to be a hallmark of HLA-B27 associated spondyloarthritides. Recently, we have generated a homodimer-specific monoclonal antibody (HD6) and have demonstrated that HLA-B27 homodimer complexes are present on monocytes of healthy HLA-B27 gene carriers at low levels, with significantly increased levels at active disease. The capability of the HD6 antibody to discriminate between correctly formed HLA-B27 heterotrimers and pathology-associated homodimers is striking and cannot be explained by the primary structure of HLA-B27. We hypothesized that HD6 accesses a unique epitope and used affinity-mass spectrometry for its identification. The HD6 antibody was immobilized on an activated sepharose affinity column, and HLA-B27 homodimer characterized for affinity. The epitope was identified by proteolytic epitope excision and MALDI mass spectrometry, and shown to comprise a discontinuous Cys-203- 257-Cys mixed-disulfide peptide structure that is not accessible in HLA-B27 heterotrimers due to protection by noncovalently linked β2-microglobulin. The epitope peptides were synthesized by solid phase peptide synthesis, and the two monomeric peptide components, HLA-B27(203-219) and HLA-B27(257-273), as well as the homo- and hetero-dimeric disulfide linked combinations prepared. The affinity binding constants KD towards the antibodies were determined using a surface acoustic wave (SAW) biosensor, and showed the highest affinity with a KD of approximately 40 nM to the HD6 antibody for the (203-219)-SS-(257-273) mixed disulfide epitope. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.
Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Noncovalent Complexes Between Synthetic Peptides from Human Ribosomal Protein L7 and Protein G
2015, Ma, Li, Kohlmann, Markus, Wochner, Michael, Krawinkel, Ulrich, Przybylski, Michael, Liu, Shuying
In order to gain a comprehensive insight into the complexes of human ribosomal protein L7 with protein G in a certain degree, an investigation on the complexes of five synthetic L7 peptides, containing the basic-region-leucine-zipper (BZIP)-like domain (aa 15–49), with protein G was performed using nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nanoESI-MS). Circular dichroism (CD) was used to characterize the secondary structures of L7 peptides. The characteristics of the complexes between L7 peptides and protein G were studied under various conditions, such as molar ratio of ligands, solvent condition, declustering potential, and peptide sequence. The stability of the complexes is found to decrease with increased declustering potential (>20 V), decreased pH (<5), increased pH (>5), while L7 peptide sequence had no obvious effect on the complex formation. Taken together, the complexes of L7 peptides with protein G are specific noncovalent binding with 1:1 stoichiometry. Because of the availability of synthetic L7 peptides, they might be used as baits to discover the binding partners of protein L7. Furthermore, the elaboration of the binding mechanisms of L7 peptides with protein G could benefit further application of protein G.
Epitope Ligand Binding Sites of Blood Group Oligosaccharides in Lectins Revealed by Pressure-Assisted Proteolytic Excision Affinity Mass Spectrometry
2018-09, Baschung, Yannick, Lupu, Loredana, Moise, Adrian, Glocker, Michael, Rawer, Stephan, Lazarev, Alexander, Przybylski, Michael
Affinity mass spectrometry using selective proteolytic excision and extraction combined with MALDI and ESI mass spectrometry has been applied to the identification of epitope binding sites of lactose, GalNac, and blood group oligosaccharides in two blood group-specific lectins, human galectin-3 and glycine max lectin. The epitope peptides identified comprise all essential amino acids involved in carbohydrate recognition, in complete agreement with available X-ray structures. Tryptic and chymotryptic digestion of lectins for proteolytic extraction/excision-MS was substantially improved by pressure-enhanced digestion using an automated Barocycler procedure (40 kpsi). Both previously established immobilization on affinity microcolumns using divinyl sulfone and coupling of a specific peptide glycoprobe to the gold surface of a biosensor chip were successfully employed for proteolytic excision and extraction of carbohydrate epitopes and affinity measurements. The identified epitope peptides could be differentiated according to the carbohydrate employed, thus demonstrating the specificity of the mass spectrometric approach. The specificities of the epitope ligands for individual carbohydrates were further ascertained by affinity studies using synthetic peptide ligands with immobilized carbohydrates. Binding affinities of the synthetic ligand peptides to lactose, in comparison to the intact full-length lectins, were determined by surface acoustic wave (SAW) biosensor analysis and provided micromolar KD values for the intact lectins, in agreement with results of previous ITC and SPR studies. Binding affinities of the epitope peptides were approximately two orders of magnitude lower, consistent with their smaller size and assembled arrangement in the carbohydrate recognition domains.
Growth of organic crystals via attachment and transformation of nanoscopic precursors
2017-06-21, Jiang, Yuan, Kellermeier, Matthias, Gebauer, Denis, Lu, Zihao, Rosenberg, Rose, Moise, Adrian, Przybylski, Michael, Cölfen, Helmut
A key requirement for the understanding of crystal growth is to detect how new layers form and grow at the nanoscale. Multistage crystallization pathways involving liquid-like, amorphous or metastable crystalline precursors have been predicted by theoretical work and have been observed experimentally. Nevertheless, there is no clear evidence that any of these precursors can also be relevant for the growth of crystals of organic compounds. Herein, we present a new growth mode for crystals of DL-glutamic acid monohydrate that proceeds through the attachment of preformed nanoscopic species from solution, their subsequent decrease in height at the surface and final transformation into crystalline 2D nuclei that eventually build new molecular layers by further monomer incorporation. This alternative mechanism provides a direct proof for the existence of multistage pathways in the crystallization of molecular compounds and the relevance of precursor units larger than the monomeric constituents in the actual stage of growth.
β-Lactoglobulin detected in human milk forms noncovalent complexes with maltooligosaccharides as revealed by chip-nanoelectrospray high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry
2015, Capitan, Florina, Robu, Adrian C., Schiopu, Catalin, Ilie, Constantin, Chait, Brian T., Przybylski, Michael, Zamfir, Alina D.
Cow's milk protein allergy in exclusively breastfed infants, the main cause of food intolerance during the first 6 months of life, is triggered by the mother's diet. β-Lactoglobulin (BLG) present in cow's milk is one of the most potent allergens for newborns. Since no prophylactic treatment is available, finding ligands capable of binding BLG and reducing its allergenicity is currently the focus of research. In this work, an innovative methodology encompassing microfluidics based on fully automated chip-nanoelectrospray ionization (nanoESI), coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) on a quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF MS) instrument was developed. This platform was employed for the assessment of the noncovalent interactions between maltohexaose (Glc6) and β-lactoglobulin extracted from human milk upon deliberate intake of cow's milk. The experiments were carried out in (+) ESI mode, using ammonium acetate (pH 6.0) as the buffer and also in pure water. In both cases, the MS analysis revealed the formation of BLG-Glc6 complex, which was characterized by top-down fragmentation in tandem MS (MS/MS) using collision-induced dissociation (CID). Our findings have a significant biomedical impact, indicating that Glc6 binds BLG under conditions mimicking the in vivo environment and therefore might represent a ligand, able to reduce its allergenicity.
Antibody Epitope of Human α‐Galactosidase A Revealed by Affinity Mass Spectrometry : A Basis for Reversing Immunoreactivity in Enzyme Replacement Therapy of Fabry Disease
2018-05-08, Kukacka, Zdenek, Iurascu, Marius Ionut, Lupu, Loredana, Rusche, Hendrik, Murphy, Mary, Altamore, Lorenzo, Borri, Fabio, Maeser, Stefan, Papini, Anna Maria, Przybylski, Michael
α‐Galactosidase (αGal) is a lysosomal enzyme that hydrolyses the terminal α‐galactosyl moiety from glycosphingolipids. Mutations in the encoding genes for αGal lead to defective or misfolded enzyme, which results in substrate accumulation and subsequent organ dysfunction. The metabolic disease caused by a deficiency of human α‐galactosidase A is known as Fabry disease or Fabry–Anderson disease, and it belongs to a larger group known as lysosomal storage diseases. An effective treatment for Fabry disease has been developed by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), which involves infusions of purified recombinant enzyme in order to increase enzyme levels and decrease the amounts of accumulated substrate. However, immunoreactivity and IgG antibody formation are major, therapy‐limiting, and eventually life‐threatening complications of ERT. The present study focused on the epitope determination of human α‐galactosidase A against its antibody formed. Here we report the identification of the epitope of human αGal(309–332) recognized by a human monoclonal anti‐αGal antibody, using a combination of proteolytic excision of the immobilized immune complex and surface plasmon resonance biosensing mass spectrometry. The epitope peptide, αGal(309–332), was synthesized by solid‐phase peptide synthesis. Determination of its affinity by surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed a high binding affinity for the antibody (KD=39×10−9 m), which is nearly identical to that of the full‐length enzyme (KD=16×10−9 m). The proteolytic excision affinity mass spectrometry method is shown here to be an efficient tool for epitope identification of an immunogenic lysosomal enzyme. Because the full‐length αGal and the antibody epitope showed similar binding affinities, this provides a basis for reversing immunogenicity upon ERT by: 1) treatment of patients with the epitope peptide to neutralize antibodies, or 2) removal of antibodies by apheresis, and thus significantly improving the response to ERT.
Substrate and Substrate-Mimetic Chaperone Binding Sites in Human α-Galactosidase A Revealed by Affinity-Mass Spectrometry
2016, Moise, Adrian, Maeser, Stefan, Rawer, Stephan, Eggers, Frederike, Murphy, Mary, Bornheim, Jeff, Przybylski, Michael
Fabry disease (FD) is a rare metabolic disorder of a group of lysosomal storage diseases, caused by deficiency or reduced activity of the enzyme α-galactosidase. Human α-galactosidase A (hαGAL) hydrolyses the terminal α-galactosyl moiety from glycosphingolipids, predominantly globotriaosylceramide (Gb3). Enzyme deficiency leads to incomplete or blocked breakdown and progressive accumulation of Gb3, with detrimental effects on normal organ functions. FD is successfully treated by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with purified recombinant hαGAL. An emerging treatment strategy, pharmacologic chaperone therapy (PCT), employs small molecules that can increase and/or reconstitute the activity of lysosomal enzyme trafficking by stabilizing misfolded isoforms. One such chaperone, 1-deoxygalactonojirimycin (DGJ), is a structural galactose analogue currently validated in clinical trials. DGJ is an active-site-chaperone that binds at the same or similar location as galactose; however, the molecular determination of chaperone binding sites in lysosomal enzymes represents a considerable challenge. Here we report the identification of the galactose and DGJ binding sites in recombinant α-galactosidase through a new affinity-mass spectrometry-based approach that employs selective proteolytic digestion of the enzyme-galactose or -inhibitor complex. Binding site peptides identified by mass spectrometry, [39-49], [83-100], and [141-168], contain the essential ligand-contacting amino acids, in agreement with the known X-ray crystal structures. The inhibitory effect of DGJ on galactose recognition was directly characterized through competitive binding experiments and mass spectrometry. The methods successfully employed in this study should have high potential for the characterization of (mutated) enzyme-substrate and -chaperone interactions, and for identifying chaperones without inhibitory effects. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.
Characterization of Non-Covalent Complexes of Synthetic Peptides of RNA Polymerase Subunit σ70 From Chlamydia trachomatis with Protein G by nanoESI-MS
2015, Ma, Li, Kohlmann, Markus, Przybylski, Michael, Liu, Shuying
To investigate the molecular mimicry between human ribosomal protein L7 with 70-kDa sigma factor (σ70) of the RNA polymerase of Chlamydia trachomatis, the complexes of synthetic σ70 peptides, σ(264–286), and σ(245–294), with protein G were investigated using nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nanoESI-MS). The σ70 peptides were synthesized in the laboratory, purified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and identified by MS. The characteristics of the complexes of σ70 peptides with protein G were investigated under different conditions. The stability of the complexes decreased with the increase of declustering potential and acidity, whereas the sequence of σ70 peptides might have an obvious effect on the complex formation. In summary, the complexes of σ70 peptides with protein G are specific non-covalent binding. It is the first study regarding the binding of σ70 with protein G. This study could provide helpful information for the elucidation of binding mechanism of protein interaction and understanding of molecular mimicry.