Epitope Ligand Binding Sites of Blood Group Oligosaccharides in Lectins Revealed by Pressure-Assisted Proteolytic Excision Affinity Mass Spectrometry
2018-09, Baschung, Yannick, Lupu, Loredana, Moise, Adrian, Glocker, Michael, Rawer, Stephan, Lazarev, Alexander, Przybylski, Michael
Affinity mass spectrometry using selective proteolytic excision and extraction combined with MALDI and ESI mass spectrometry has been applied to the identification of epitope binding sites of lactose, GalNac, and blood group oligosaccharides in two blood group-specific lectins, human galectin-3 and glycine max lectin. The epitope peptides identified comprise all essential amino acids involved in carbohydrate recognition, in complete agreement with available X-ray structures. Tryptic and chymotryptic digestion of lectins for proteolytic extraction/excision-MS was substantially improved by pressure-enhanced digestion using an automated Barocycler procedure (40 kpsi). Both previously established immobilization on affinity microcolumns using divinyl sulfone and coupling of a specific peptide glycoprobe to the gold surface of a biosensor chip were successfully employed for proteolytic excision and extraction of carbohydrate epitopes and affinity measurements. The identified epitope peptides could be differentiated according to the carbohydrate employed, thus demonstrating the specificity of the mass spectrometric approach. The specificities of the epitope ligands for individual carbohydrates were further ascertained by affinity studies using synthetic peptide ligands with immobilized carbohydrates. Binding affinities of the synthetic ligand peptides to lactose, in comparison to the intact full-length lectins, were determined by surface acoustic wave (SAW) biosensor analysis and provided micromolar KD values for the intact lectins, in agreement with results of previous ITC and SPR studies. Binding affinities of the epitope peptides were approximately two orders of magnitude lower, consistent with their smaller size and assembled arrangement in the carbohydrate recognition domains.
Identification and Affinity-Quantification of ß-Amyloid and α-Synuclein Polypeptides Using On-Line SAW-Biosensor-Mass Spectrometry
2014, Slamnoiu, Stefan, Vlad, Camelia, Stumbaum, Mihaela, Moise, Adrian, Lindner, Kathrin, Engel, Nicole, Vilanova, Mar, Diaz, Mireia, Karreman, Christiaan, Leist, Marcel, Ciossek, Thomas, Hengerer, Bastian, Vilaseca, Marta, Przybylski, Michael
Bioaffinity analysis using a variety of biosensors has become an established tool for detection and quantification of biomolecular interactions. Biosensors, however, are generally limited by the lack of chemical structure information of affinity-bound ligands. On-line bioaffinity-mass spectrometry using a surface-acoustic wave biosensor (SAW-MS) is a new combination providing the simultaneous affinity detection, quantification, and mass spectrometric structural characterization of ligands. We describe here an on-line SAW-MS combination for direct identification and affinity determination, using a new interface for MS of the affinity-isolated ligand eluate. Key element of the SAW-MS combination is a microfluidic interface that integrates affinity-isolation on a gold chip, in-situ sample concentration, and desalting with a microcolumn for MS of the ligand eluate from the biosensor. Suitable MS- acquisition software has been developed that provides coupling of the SAW-MS interface to a Bruker Daltonics ion trap-MS, FTICR-MS, and Waters Synapt-QTOF- MS systems. Applications are presented for mass spectrometric identifications and affinity (KD) determinations of the neurodegenerative polypeptides, ß-amyloid (Aß), and pathophysiological and physiological synucleins (α- and ß-synucleins), two key polypeptide systems for Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, respectively. Moreover, first in vivo applications of αSyn polypeptides from brain homogenate show the feasibility of on-line affinity-MS to the direct analysis of biological material. These results demonstrate on-line SAW-bioaffinity-MS as a powerful tool for structural and quantitative analysis of biopolymer interactions.
Surface-Based and Mass Spectrometric Approaches to Deciphering Sugar–Protein Interactions in a Galactose-Specific Agglutinin
2012-08-07, Jiménez-Castells, Carmen, Defaus, Sira, Moise, Adrian, Przybylski, Michael, Andreu, David, Gutiérrez-Gallego, Ricardo
Interest in powerful, nanosized tools to analyze in detail glycan–protein interactions has increased significantly over recent years. Here, we report two complementary approaches to characterize such interactions with high sensitivity, low sample consumption, and without the need for sample labeling, namely, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and an approach that combines limited proteolysis and mass spectrometry. Combination of these two approaches to investigate glycan–protein interactions allows (1) to characterize interactions through kinetic and thermodynamic parameters, (2) to capture efficiently the carbohydrate-binding protein, and (3) to identify the interacted protein and its carbohydrate binding site by mass spectrometry. As a proof of principle, the interaction of the galactose-specific legume lectin Erythrina cristagalli agglutinin with several sugars has been characterized in-depth by means of these two approaches.
Epitope structure of the carbohydrate recognition domain of asiaglycoprotein receptor to a monoclonal antibody revealed by high resolution proteolytic excision mass spectrometry
2011-01, Stefanescu, Raluca, Born, Rita, Moise, Adrian, Ernst, Beat, Przybylski, Michael
Recent studies suggest that the H1 subunit of the carbohydrate recognition domain (H1CRD) of the asialoglycoprotein receptor is used as entry site into hepatocytes by hepatitis A and B virus, and Marburg virus. Thus, molecules binding specifically to the CRD might exert inhibition towards these diseases by blocking the virus entry site. We report here the identification of the epitope structure of H1CRD to a monoclonal antibody by proteolytic epitope excision of the immune complex and high resolution MALDI-FTICR mass spectrometry. As a prerequisite of the epitope determination, the primary structure of the H1CRD antigen was characterised by ESI-FTICR-MS of the intact protein and by LCMS/MS of tryptic digest mixtures. Molecular mass determination and proteolytic fragments provided the identification of 2 intra-molecular disulfide bridges (7 Cys residues), and a Cysmercaptoethanol adduct formed by treatment with ß-mercaptoethanol during protein extraction. The H1CRD antigen binds to the monoclonal antibody in both native and Cysalkylated form. For identification of the epitope, the antibody was immobilized on N-hydroxysuccinimide activated Sepharose. Epitope- excision and - extraction with trypsin and FTICR-MS of affinity-bound peptides provided the identification of two specific epitope peptides, (5-16) and (17-23) which showed high affinity to the antibody. Affinity studies of the synthetic epitope peptides revealed independent binding of each peptide to the antibody.
Growth of organic crystals via attachment and transformation of nanoscopic precursors
2017-06-21, Jiang, Yuan, Kellermeier, Matthias, Gebauer, Denis, Lu, Zihao, Rosenberg, Rose, Moise, Adrian, Przybylski, Michael, Cölfen, Helmut
A key requirement for the understanding of crystal growth is to detect how new layers form and grow at the nanoscale. Multistage crystallization pathways involving liquid-like, amorphous or metastable crystalline precursors have been predicted by theoretical work and have been observed experimentally. Nevertheless, there is no clear evidence that any of these precursors can also be relevant for the growth of crystals of organic compounds. Herein, we present a new growth mode for crystals of DL-glutamic acid monohydrate that proceeds through the attachment of preformed nanoscopic species from solution, their subsequent decrease in height at the surface and final transformation into crystalline 2D nuclei that eventually build new molecular layers by further monomer incorporation. This alternative mechanism provides a direct proof for the existence of multistage pathways in the crystallization of molecular compounds and the relevance of precursor units larger than the monomeric constituents in the actual stage of growth.
Amino acids form prenucleation clusters : ESI-MS as a fast detection method in comparison to analytical ultracentrifugation
2012, Kellermeier, Matthias, Rosenberg, Rose, Moise, Adrian, Anders, Ulrike, Przybylski, Michael, Cölfen, Helmut
Electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) is a fast method which is able to provide molecular mass information with high precision. In this contribution, we show that prenucleation clusters—species recently found to play a pivotal role in crystallisation processes—are detected in addition to monomers by analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) for the whole range of DL-amino acids, while higher oligomers are simultaneously observed in ESI-MS spectra. This suggests ESI-MS is a fast method to identify systems, which form prenucleation clusters. The occurrence of these clusters as relevant precursors in non-classical nucleation scenarios thus appears to be a more common phenomenon than so far assumed.
Substrate and Substrate-Mimetic Chaperone Binding Sites in Human α-Galactosidase A Revealed by Affinity-Mass Spectrometry
2016, Moise, Adrian, Maeser, Stefan, Rawer, Stephan, Eggers, Frederike, Murphy, Mary, Bornheim, Jeff, Przybylski, Michael
Fabry disease (FD) is a rare metabolic disorder of a group of lysosomal storage diseases, caused by deficiency or reduced activity of the enzyme α-galactosidase. Human α-galactosidase A (hαGAL) hydrolyses the terminal α-galactosyl moiety from glycosphingolipids, predominantly globotriaosylceramide (Gb3). Enzyme deficiency leads to incomplete or blocked breakdown and progressive accumulation of Gb3, with detrimental effects on normal organ functions. FD is successfully treated by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with purified recombinant hαGAL. An emerging treatment strategy, pharmacologic chaperone therapy (PCT), employs small molecules that can increase and/or reconstitute the activity of lysosomal enzyme trafficking by stabilizing misfolded isoforms. One such chaperone, 1-deoxygalactonojirimycin (DGJ), is a structural galactose analogue currently validated in clinical trials. DGJ is an active-site-chaperone that binds at the same or similar location as galactose; however, the molecular determination of chaperone binding sites in lysosomal enzymes represents a considerable challenge. Here we report the identification of the galactose and DGJ binding sites in recombinant α-galactosidase through a new affinity-mass spectrometry-based approach that employs selective proteolytic digestion of the enzyme-galactose or -inhibitor complex. Binding site peptides identified by mass spectrometry, [39-49], [83-100], and [141-168], contain the essential ligand-contacting amino acids, in agreement with the known X-ray crystal structures. The inhibitory effect of DGJ on galactose recognition was directly characterized through competitive binding experiments and mass spectrometry. The methods successfully employed in this study should have high potential for the characterization of (mutated) enzyme-substrate and -chaperone interactions, and for identifying chaperones without inhibitory effects. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.
When is Mass Spectrometry combined with Affinity Approaches essential? : A case study of Tyrosine Nitration in Proteins
2012-11, Petre, Brînduşa-Alina, Ulrich, Martina, Stumbaum, Mihaela, Bernevic, Bogdan, Moise, Adrian, Döring, Gerd, Przybylski, Michael
Tyrosine nitration in proteins occurs under physiologic conditions and is increased at disease conditions associated with oxidative stress, such as inflammation and Alzheimer’s disease. Identification and quantification of tyrosine-nitrations are crucial for understanding nitration mechanism(s) and their functional consequences. Mass spectrometry (MS) is best suited to identify nitration sites, but is hampered by low stabilities and modification levels and possible structural changes induced by nitration. In this insight, we discuss methods for identifying and quantifying nitration sites by proteolytic affinity extraction using nitrotyrosine (NT)-specific antibodies, in combination with electrospray-MS. The efficiency of this approach is illustrated by identification of specific nitration sites in two proteins in eosinophil granules from several biological samples, eosinophil-cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN). Affinity extraction combined with Edman sequencing enabled the quantification of nitration levels, which were found to be 8 % and 15 % for ECP and EDN, respectively. Structure modeling utilizing available crystal structures and affinity studies using synthetic NT-peptides suggest a tyrosine nitration sequence motif comprising positively charged residues in the vicinity of the NT- residue, located at specific surface- accessible sites of the protein structure. Affinities of Tyr-nitrated peptides from ECP and EDN to NT-antibodies, determined by online bioaffinity- MS, provided nanomolar KD values. In contrast, false-positive identifications of nitrations were obtained in proteins from cystic fibrosis patients upon using NT-specific antibodies, and were shown to be hydroxy-tyrosine modifications. These results demonstrate affinity- mass spectrometry approaches to be essential for unequivocal identification of biological tyrosine nitrations.
Toward bioinspired galectin mimetics : Identification of ligand-contacting peptides by proteolytic-excision mass spectrometry
2011-09-28, Moise, Adrian, André, Sabine, Eggers, Frederike, Krzeminski, Mickael, Przybylski, Michael, Gabius, Hans-Joachim
Clinically relevant bioactivities of human galectins (adhesion/growth-regulatory galactoside-specific lectins) inspired the design of peptides as new tools to elicit favorable effects (e.g., in growth control) or block harmful binding (e.g., in tissue invasion). To obtain the bioinspired lead compounds, we combined a proteolytic fragmentation approach without/with ligand contact (excision) with mass spectrometric identification of affinity-bound protein fragments, using galectin-1 and -3 as models. Two peptides from the carbohydrate recognition domains were obtained in each case in experimental series rigorously controlled for specificity, and the [157 162] peptide of galectin-3 proved to be active in blocking lectin binding to a neoglycoprotein and to tumor cell surfaces. This approach affords peptide sequences for structural optimization and intrafamily/phylogenetic galectin comparison at the binding-site level with a minimal requirement of protein quantity, and it is even amenable to mixtures.