Delgado, M. Eugenia
Proteasome inhibition triggers the formation of TRAIL receptor 2 platforms for caspase-8 activation that accumulate in the cytosol
2022-01, Hellwig, Christian T., Delgado, M. Eugenia, Skoko, Josip, Dyck, Lydia, Hanna, Carol, Wentges, Alexa, Langlais, Claudia, Hagenlocher, Cathrin, Mack, Alexandra, Rehm, Markus
Cancer cells that are resistant to Bax/Bak-dependent intrinsic apoptosis can be eliminated by proteasome inhibition. Here, we show that proteasome inhibition induces the formation of high molecular weight platforms in the cytosol that serve to activate caspase-8. The activation complexes contain Fas-associated death domain (FADD) and receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (RIPK1). Furthermore, the complexes contain TRAIL-receptor 2 (TRAIL-R2) but not TRAIL-receptor 1 (TRAIL-R1). While RIPK1 inhibition or depletion did not affect proteasome inhibitor-induced cell death, TRAIL-R2 was found essential for efficient caspase-8 activation, since the loss of TRAIL-R2 expression abrogated caspase processing, significantly reduced cell death, and promoted cell re-growth after drug washout. Overall, our study provides novel insight into the mechanisms by which proteasome inhibition eliminates otherwise apoptosis-resistant cells, and highlights the crucial role of a ligand-independent but TRAIL-R2-dependent activation mechanism for caspase-8 in this scenario.
The many faces of tumor necrosis factor signaling in the intestinal epithelium
2019-11, Delgado, M. Eugenia, Brunner, Thomas
The intestinal epithelium represents an exquisite complex combination of specialized cellular components, structural organization, as well as fine-tuned maintenance and renewal mechanisms that ensure its barrier and absorptive function. Defects in one or more of these components can lead to devastating consequences for the organisms, and when chronic, even develop into inflammatory diseases, such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. In these scenarios, the cytokine TNF (Tumor Necrosis Factor α) appears to be a major inflammation-promoting and tissue damage-promoting effector molecule. Besides its role in inflammation and cell death, TNF presents a wide range of pleiotropic activities with implications in various cellular processes, including proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, more recent evidences suggest an anti-inflammatory role of TNF, mostly via the induction of local glucocorticoids synthesis in the intestinal epithelium. Thus, the outcome of TNF receptor signaling largely depends on various factors, like the TNFR composition and the precise cellular context or tissue type, which will determine the cellular fate. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms and their potential crosstalk that regulate the different TNF-initiated cellular outcomes in the intestine, as well as possible applications for pharmacological interventions in the treatment of inflammatory disorders of the intestinal mucosa.
Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein-1 Regulates Tumor Necrosis Factor-mediated Destruction of Intestinal Epithelial Cells
2017-03, Grabinger, Thomas, Bode, Konstantin J., Demgenski, Janine, Seitz, Carina, Delgado, M. Eugenia, Kostadinova, Feodora, Reinhold, Cindy, Etemadi, Nima, Hauck, Christof R., Brunner, Thomas
Background and aims
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a cytokine that promotes inflammation and contributes to pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases. Unlike other cells and tissues, intestinal epithelial cells undergo rapid cell death upon exposure to TNF, by unclear mechanisms. We investigated the roles of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) in the regulation of TNF-induced cell death in the intestinal epithelium of mice and intestinal organoids.
RNA from cell lines and tissues and analyzed by quantitative PCR, protein levels were analyzed by immunoblot assays. BIRC2 (also called cIAP1) was expressed upon induction from lentiviral vectors in young adult mouse colon (YAMC) cells. YAMC cells, the mouse colon carcinoma cell line MC38, the mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7, or mouse and human organoids were incubated with Smac-mimetic compound LCL161 or recombinant TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TNFSF12) along with TNF, and cell death was quantified. C57BL/6 mice with disruption of Xiap,Birc2 (encodes cIAP1), Birc3 (encodes cIAP2), Tnfrsf1a, or Tnfrsf1b (Tnfrsf1a and b encode TNF receptors) were injected with TNF or saline (control); liver and intestinal tissues were collected and analyzed for apoptosis induction by cleaved caspase 3 immunohistochemistry. We also measured levels of TNF and alanine aminotransferase in serum from mice.
YAMC cells, and mouse and human intestinal organoids, died rapidly in response to TNF. YAMC and intestinal crypts expressed lower levels of XIAP, cIAP1, cIAP2, and cFLIP than liver tissue. Smac-mimetics reduced levels of cIAP1 and XIAP in MC38 and YAMC cells, and Smac-mimetics and TWEAK increased TNF-induced cell death in YAMC cells and organoids—most likely by sequestering and degrading cIAP1. Injection of TNF greatly increased levels of cell death in intestinal tissue of cIAP1-null mice, compared to wild-type C57BL/6 mice, cIAP2-null mice, or XIAP-null mice. Excessive TNF-induced cell death in the intestinal epithelium was mediated TNF receptor 1.
In a study of mouse and human cell lines, organoids, and tissues, we found cIAP1 to be required for regulation of TNF-induced intestinal epithelial cell death and survival. These findings have important implications for the pathogenesis of TNF-mediated enteropathies and chronic inflammatory diseases of the intestine.
Thiazolides promote G1 cell cycle arrest in colorectal cancer cells by targeting the mitochondrial respiratory chain
2020-03, Ripani, Paola, Delp, Johannes, Bode, Konstantin J., Delgado, M. Eugenia, Dietrich, Lea, Betzler, Verena M., von Scheven, Gudrun, Mayer, Thomas U., Leist, Marcel, Brunner, Thomas
Systemic toxicity and tumor cell resistance still limit the efficacy of chemotherapy in colorectal cancer. Therefore, alternative treatments are desperately needed. The thiazolide Nitazoxanide (NTZ) is an FDA-approved drug for the treatment of parasite-mediated infectious diarrhea with a favorable safety profile. Interestingly, NTZ and the thiazolide RM4819—its bromo-derivative lacking antibiotic activity—are also promising candidates for cancer treatment. Yet the exact anticancer mechanism(s) of these compounds still remains unclear. In this study, we systematically investigated RM4819 and NTZ in 2D and 3D colorectal cancer culture systems. Both compounds strongly inhibited proliferation of colon carcinoma cell lines by promoting G1 phase cell cycle arrest. Thiazolide-induced cell cycle arrest was independent of the p53/p21 axis, but was mediated by inhibition of protein translation via the mTOR/c-Myc/p27 pathway, likely caused by inhibition of mitochondrial respiration. While both thiazolides demonstrated mitochondrial uncoupling activity, only RM4819 inhibited the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex III. Interestingly, thiazolides also potently inhibited the growth of murine colonic tumoroids in a comparable manner with cisplatin, while in contrast to cisplatin thiazolides did not affect the growth of primary intestinal organoids. Thus, thiazolides appear to have a tumor-selective antiproliferative activity, which offers new perspectives in the treatment of colorectal cancer.
The orphan nuclear receptor LRH-1/NR5a2 critically regulates T cell functions
2019-07, Seitz, Carina, Michalek, Svenja, Phan, Truong San, Reinhold, Cindy, Dietrich, Lea, Schmidt, Christian, Delgado, M. Eugenia, Schnalzger, Theresa, Brunner, Thomas
LRH-1 (liver receptor homolog-1/NR5a2) is an orphan nuclear receptor, which regulates glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as intestinal inflammation via the transcriptional control of intestinal glucocorticoid synthesis. Predominantly expressed in epithelial cells, its expression and role in immune cells are presently enigmatic. LRH-1 was found to be induced in immature and mature T lymphocytes upon stimulation. T cell-specific deletion of LRH-1 causes a drastic loss of mature peripheral T cells. LRH-1-depleted CD4+ T cells exert strongly reduced activation-induced proliferation in vitro and in vivo and fail to mount immune responses against model antigens and to induce experimental intestinal inflammation. Similarly, LRH-1-deficient cytotoxic CD8+ T cells fail to control viral infections. This study describes a novel and critical role of LRH-1 in T cell maturation, functions, and immopathologies and proposes LRH-1 as an emerging pharmacological target in the treatment of T cell-mediated inflammatory diseases.
Cell death at the intestinal epithelial front line
2016-07, Delgado, M. Eugenia, Grabinger, Thomas, Brunner, Thomas
The intestinal epithelium represents the largest epithelial surface in our body. This single cell-layer epithelium mediates important functions in the absorption of nutrients and in the maintenance of barrier function, preventing luminal microorganism from invading the body. Due to its constant regeneration the intestinal epithelium is not only a tissue with very high proliferation rates, but also with very prominent physiological and pathophysiological cell death induction. The normal physiological differentiation and maturation of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) leads to their shedding and apoptotic cell death within few days, without disturbing the epithelial barrier integrity. In contrast excessive IEC cell death induced by irradiation, drugs and inflammation severely impairs the vital functions of this tissue. In this review we discuss cell death processes in the intestinal epithelium in health and disease, with special emphasis on TNF receptor family-triggered cell death.The intestinal epithelium represents the largest epithelial surface in our body. This single-cell-layer epithelium mediates important functions in the absorption of nutrients and in the maintenance of barrier function, preventing luminal microorganisms from invading the body. Due to its constant regeneration the intestinal epithelium is a tissue not only with very high proliferation rates but also with very prominent physiological and pathophysiological cell death induction. The normal physiological differentiation and maturation of intestinal epithelial cells leads to their shedding and apoptotic cell death within a few days, without disturbing the epithelial barrier integrity. In contrast excessive intestinal epithelial cell death induced by irradiation, drugs and inflammation severely impairs the vital functions of this tissue. In this review we discuss cell death processes in the intestinal epithelium in health and disease, with special emphasis on cell death triggered by the tumour necrosis factor receptor family.
Pharmacological LRH-1/Nr5a2 inhibition limits pro-inflammatory cytokine production in macrophages and associated experimental hepatitis
2020-02-28, Schwaderer, Juliane, Phan, Truong San, Glöckner, Astrid, Delp, Johannes, Leist, Marcel, Brunner, Thomas, Delgado, M. Eugenia
Liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1, Nr5a2) is an orphan nuclear receptor mainly expressed in tissues of endodermal origin, where its physiological role has been extensively studied. LRH-1 has been implicated in liver cell differentiation and proliferation, as well as glucose, lipid, and bile acid metabolism. In addition, increasing evidence highlights its role in immunoregulatory processes via glucocorticoid synthesis in the intestinal epithelium. Although the direct function of LRH-1 in immune cells is fairly elucidated, a role of LRH-1 in the regulation of macrophage differentiation has been recently reported. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of LRH-1 in the regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine production in macrophages. Our data demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition, along with LRH-1 knockdown, significantly reduced the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the macrophage line RAW 264.7 cells, as well as in primary murine macrophages. This inhibitory effect was found to be independent of defects of LRH-1-regulated cell proliferation or toxic effects of the LRH-1 inhibitors. In contrast, LRH-1 inhibition reduced the mitochondrial ATP production and metabolism of macrophages through downregulation of the LRH-1 targets glucokinase and glutminase-2, and thus impairing the LPS-induced macrophage activation. Interestingly, in vivo pharmacological inhibition of LRH-1 also resulted in reduced tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production and associated decreased liver damage in a macrophage- and TNF-dependent mouse model of hepatitis. Noteworthy, despite hepatocytes expressing high levels of LRH-1, pharmacological inhibition of LRH-1 per se did not cause any obvious liver damage. Therefore, this study proposes LRH-1 as an emerging therapeutic target in the treatment of inflammatory disorders, especially where macrophages and cytokines critically decide the extent of inflammation.
Liver receptor homolog-1 (NR5a2) regulates CD95/Fas ligand transcription and associated T-cell effector functions
2017-04-13, Schwaderer, Juliane, Gaiser, Ann-Kathrin, Phan, Truong San, Delgado, M. Eugenia, Brunner, Thomas
CD95/Fas ligand (FasL) is a cell death-promoting member of the tumor necrosis factor family with important functions in the regulation of T-cell homeostasis and cytotoxicity. In T cells, FasL expression is tightly regulated on a transcriptional level involving a complex set of different transcription factors. The orphan nuclear receptor liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1/NR5a2) is involved in the regulation of development, lipid metabolism and proliferation and is predominantly expressed in epithelial tissues. However, its expression in T lymphocytes has never been reported so far. Based on in silico analysis, we identified potential LRH-1 binding sites within the FASLG promoter. Here, we report that LRH-1 is expressed in primary and secondary lymphatic tissues, as well as in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. LRH-1 directly binds to its binding sites in the FASLG promoter, and thereby drives FASLG promoter activity. Mutations in the LRH-1 binding sites reduce FASLG promoter activity. Pharmacological inhibition of LRH-1 decreases activation-induced FasL mRNA expression, as well as FasL-mediated activation-induced T-cell apoptosis and T-cell cytotoxicity. In a mouse model of Concanavalin A-induced and FasL-mediated hepatitis pharmacological inhibition of LRH-1 resulted in decreased hepatic FasL expression and a significant reduction of liver damage. In summary, these data show for the first time LRH-1 expression in T cells, its role in FASLG transcription and the potential of pharmacological inhibition of LRH-1 in the treatment of FasL-mediated immunopathologies.
Analysis of Cell Death Induction in Intestinal Organoids In Vitro
2016-04-24, Grabinger, Thomas, Delgado, M. Eugenia, Brunner, Thomas
The intestinal epithelium has an important function in the absorption of nutrients contained in the food. Furthermore, it also has an important barrier function, preventing luminal pathogens from entering the bloodstream. This single cell layer epithelium is quite sensitive to various cell death-promoting triggers, including drugs, irradiation, and TNF family members, leading to loss of barrier integrity, epithelial erosion, inflammation, malabsorption, and diarrhea. In order to assess the intestinal epithelium-damaging potential of treatments and substances specific test systems are required. As intestinal tumor cell lines are a poor substitute for primary intestinal epithelial cells, and in vivo experiments in mice are costly and often unethical, the use of intestinal organoids cultured from intestinal crypts provide an ideal tool to study cell death induction and mechanisms in primary intestinal epithelial cells. This protocol describes the isolation and culture of intestinal organoids from murine small intestinal crypts, and the quantitative assessment of cell death induction in these organoids.