Elaboration of the Environmental Stress Hypothesis : Results from a Population-Based 6-Year Follow-Up
2016, Wagner, Matthias, Jekauc, Darko, Worth, Annette, Woll, Alexander
The aim of this paper was to contribute to the elaboration of the Environmental Stress Hypothesis framework by testing eight hypotheses addressing the direct impact of gross motor coordination problems in elementary-school on selected physical, behavioral and psychosocial outcomes in adolescence. Results are based on a longitudinal sample of 940 participants who were (i) recruited as part of a population-based representative survey on health, physical fitness and physical activity in childhood and adolescence, (ii) assessed twice within 6 years, between the ages of 6 and 10 years old as well as between the ages of 12 and 16 years old (Response Rate: 55.9%) and (iii) classified as having gross motor coordination problems (N = 115) or having no gross motor coordination problems (N = 825) at baseline. Motor tests from the Körperkoordinationstest, measures of weight and height, a validated physical activity questionnaire as well as the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire were conducted. Data were analyzed by use of binary logistic regressions. Results indicated that elementary-school children with gross motor coordination problems show a higher risk of persistent gross motor coordination problems (OR = 7.99, p < 0.001), avoiding organized physical activities (OR = 1.53, p < 0.05), an elevated body mass (OR = 1.78, p < 0.05), bonding with sedentary peers (OR = 1.84, p < 0.01) as well as emotional (OR = 1.73, p < 0.05) and conduct (OR = 1.79, p < 0.05) problems in adolescence in comparison to elementary-school children without gross motor coordination problems. However, elementary-school children with gross motor coordination problems did not show a significantly higher risk of peer problems (OR = 1.35, p = 0.164) or diminished prosocial behavior (OR = 1.90, p = 0.168) in adolescence, respectively in comparison to elementary-school children without gross motor coordination problems. This study is the first to provide population-based longitudinal data ranging from childhood to adolescence in the context of the Environmental Stress Hypothesis which can be considered a substantial methodological progress. In summary, gross motor coordination problems represent a serious issue for a healthy transition from childhood to adolescence which substantiates respective early movement interventions.
Prediction of attendance at fitness center : a comparison between the theory of planned behavior, the social cognitive theory, and the physical activity maintenance theory
2015, Jekauc, Darko, Völkle, Manuel, Wagner, Matthias, Mess, Filip, Reiner, Miriam, Renner, Britta
In the processes of physical activity (PA) maintenance specific predictors are effective, which differ from other stages of PA development. Recently, Physical Activity Maintenance Theory (PAMT) was specifically developed for prediction of PA maintenance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the predictability of the future behavior by the PAMT and compare it with the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). Participation rate in a fitness center was observed for 101 college students (53 female) aged between 19 and 32 years (M = 23.6; SD = 2.9) over 20 weeks using a magnetic card. In order to predict the pattern of participation TPB, SCT and PAMT were used. A latent class zero-inflated Poisson growth curve analysis identified two participation patterns: regular attenders and intermittent exercisers. SCT showed the highest predictive power followed by PAMT and TPB. Impeding aspects as life stress and barriers were the strongest predictors suggesting that overcoming barriers might be an important aspect for working out on a regular basis. Self-efficacy, perceived behavioral control, and social support could also significantly differentiate between the participation patterns.
Does initial behavior predict our physical fitness and health 18 years later?
2014, Lämmle, Lena, Jekauc, Darko, Woll, Alexander, Tittlbach, Susanne, Bös, Klaus
The aim of the present paper was, first, to analyze a four level biopsychosocial model to examine the interaction of various initial health behaviors and, second, their consequences with respect to the course of physical fitness (PF) and health of adults over the course of 18 years.
Longitudinal study based on medical examinations and self-ratings.
Path analysis along with latent growth curve analysis was based on the German study about the relationship of physical activity, fitness and health (1992–2010). Data were collected from 495 adults (243 women) with an average age of 45.03 years in 1992 (SD = 7.45). Participants were randomly selected from the official registers of local residents' registration offices in the community of Bad Schönborn.
For the mean PF and health levels in 1992, direct and indirect influences were shown on four levels including socioeconomic status and immigration on the first level, outcome expectations and stress coping strategies on the second level as well as eating patterns and physical activity on the third level; furthermore, the course of PF and the course of health (from 1992 until 2010) were affected by the initial behaviors (physical activity and eating patterns in 1992); finally PF and health were not related
Influences on four levels provided evidence for the complexity of PF and health (outcome level). Initial behaviors predicted current PF and health status, as well as their course. Thus, preventive measures should ensure that healthy behaviors are adopted early in adulthood.
Ambulatory assessment for physical activity research : State of the science, best practices and future directions
2020-09, Reichert, Markus, Giurgiu, Marco, Koch, Elena, Wieland, Lena M., Lautenbach, Sven, Neubauer, Andreas B., von Haaren-Mack, Birte, Jekauc, Darko, Woll, Alexander, Kanning, Martina
Technological and digital progress benefits physical activity (PA) research. Here we compiled expert knowledge on how Ambulatory Assessment (AA) is utilized to advance PA research, i.e., we present results of the 2nd International CAPA Workshop 2019 “Physical Activity Assessment – State of the Science, Best Practices, Future Directions” where invited researchers with experience in PA assessment, evaluation, technology and application participated. First, we provide readers with the state of the AA science, then we give best practice recommendations on how to measure PA via AA and shed light on methodological frontiers, and we furthermore discuss future directions. AA encompasses a class of methods that allows the study of PA and its behavioral, biological and physiological correlates as they unfold in everyday life. AA includes monitoring of movement (e.g., via accelerometry), physiological function (e.g., via mobile electrocardiogram), contextual information (e.g., via geolocation-tracking), and ecological momentary assessment (EMA; e.g., electronic diaries) to capture self-reported information. The strengths of AA are data assessments near real-time, which minimize retrospective biases in real-world settings, consequentially enabling ecological valid findings. Importantly, AA enables multiple assessments across time within subjects resulting in intensive longitudinal data (ILD), which allows unraveling within-person determinants of PA in everyday life. In this paper, we show how AA methods such as triggered e-diaries and geolocation-tracking can be used to measure PA and its correlates, and furthermore how these findings may translate into real-life interventions. In sum, AA provides numerous possibilities for PA research, especially the opportunity to tackle within-subject antecedents, concomitants, and consequences of PA as they unfold in everyday life. In-depth insights on determinants of PA could help us design and deliver impactful interventions in real-world contexts, thus enabling us to solve critical health issues in the 21st century such as insufficient PA and high levels of sedentary behavior.
A qualitative analysis of emotional facilitators in exercise
2016, Wienke, Benjamin, Jekauc, Darko
Although previous research has shown that emotions are consistently associated with sport and exercise behavior, the working mechanisms are not understood to the extent of creating an intervention. The aim of this study is to identify situations and aspects of recreational sport and exercise, which lead to positive emotional reactions in people taking part in regular and long-term exercise. In this study, 24 adults (12 female, 12 male) distributed over three age groups (young, middle, and late adulthood), took part in recreational sports (individual or team sport) for at least 5 years. Semi-structured in depth interviews with questions about sport and exercise habits, long term participation and emotional response in a sporting environment were conducted in order to ascertain those situations and aspects of the exercise program triggering positive emotions. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and followed Grounded Theory principles. Emerging concepts were grouped and merged into different categories representing the key aspects of sport and exercise. Four factors were identified which are associated with the emergence of positive emotions in recreational sport and exercise. Firstly, perceived competence is one of the major factors influencing emotions during exercise and can represent individual and collective success and progress, competition and challenge. Secondly, perceived social interaction is another factor comprising of all sorts of peer-related aspects such as communication with others, being part of a group and creating close relationships or friendships. Thirdly, novelty experience in contrast to other none-sporting activities such as work, family or other leisure activities was another factor. The last factor found was the perceived physical exertion comprising of the degree of exhaustion, a possibly delayed turnaround in the emotional response and the aspect of sport being a physical compensation for everyday sedentary life. The results of this study provide the starting point for the development of interventions to enhance positive emotions in sports in order to increase maintenance and adherence to recreational sport and exercise.
Does Physical Self-Concept Mediate the Relationship between Motor Abilities and Physical Activity in Adolescents and Young Adults?
2017-01-03, Jekauc, Darko, Wagner, Matthias, Herrmann, Christian, Hegazy, Khaled, Woll, Alexander
The purpose of this study is to examine the reciprocal relationship between motor abilities and physical activity and the mediation effects of physical self-concept in this relationship using longitudinal data. We expect that the effects of motor abilities on physical activity are rather indirect via physical self-concept and that the effects of physical activity on motor abilities are rather direct without involvement of the motor ability self-concept. Data was obtained from the Motorik-Modul (MoMo) Longitudinal Study in which 335 boys and 363 girls aged 11-17 years old at Baseline were examined twice in a period of six years. Physical activity was assessed by the MoMo Physical Activity Questionnaire for adolescents, physical self-concept by Physical Self-Description Questionnaire and motor abilities by MoMo Motor Test which comprised of the dimensions strength, endurance, coordination and flexibility. Multiple regression analyses were used to analyse the direct and indirect effects. The results of the multiple regression analyses show that the effects of motor abilities on physical activity were only indirect for the dimensions strength, coordination, and flexibility. For the dimension endurance, neither direct nor indirect effects were significant. In the opposite direction, the effects of physical activity on motor abilities were partially mediated by the self-concept of strength. For the dimensions endurance, coordination and flexibility, only indirect were significant. The results of this study support the assumption that the relationship between motor abilities and physical activity is mediated by physical self-concept in both directions. Physical self-concept seems to be an important determinant of adolescents´ physical activity.
Elaboration of the environmental stress hypothesis : results from a population-based 6-year follow-up
2015, Wagner, Matthias, Jekauc, Darko, Worth, Annette, Woll, Alexander
Objective. The aim of this paper is the longitudinal elaboration of the environmental stress hypothesis (Cairney et al., 2013) on the basis of the MoMo study (Wagner et al., 2013). We assume that, in comparison to their typically developed peers, children with potential developmental coordination disorder (DCD) show a higher risk for persistent gross motor coordination problems (H1), overweight and obesity (H2), physical inactivity (H3), peer-relationship (H4) as well as internalizing (H5) problems in adolescents. Methods. MoMo (a) started with a population-based representative sample of 4,529 German children and adolescents aged between 4 and 17 years at baseline (2003–2006), (b) continued with a first follow-up (2009–2012) and (c) includes standardized motor tasks, a physical activity questionnaire, as well as various health-measures. We focus on children between 6 and 10 years at baseline (N = 1,674; Mage = 8.26, SD = 1.48; 50,6% boys) who were reexamined between the ages of 12 and 16 years (N = 929; response rate: 55,5%; Mage = 14.36, SD = 1.45; 49,0% boys). Children in the longitudinal sample diagnosed as having potential DCD at baseline (N = 111; 49,5% boys) were identified on the basis of three common gross motor coordination tasks using the age- and gender-specific 15th percentile cutoff. Data were analyzed with binary logistic regressions including the stability of the respective dependent variable. Results. In comparison to their typically developed peers, children with potential DCD show a higher risk for (i) persistent gross motor coordination problems (OR = 7.66, p < .01), (ii) overweight and obesity (OR = 1.78, p < .05), (iii) physical inactivity (OR = 7.31, p < .05), (iv) peer-relationship (OR = 1.48, p < .05) as well as (v) internalizing (OR = 1.53, p < .05) problems in adolescents. Conclusion. Our results provide evidence for the developmental impact of childhood DCD. Subsequent analysis will be focused on the mediating and moderating role of personal and social resources using the data of two subsequent survey waves (2014–2016; 2018–2020).
Cohort Profile: The Motorik-Modul Longitudinal Study : physical fitness and physical activity as determinants of health development in German children and adolescents
2014-10, Wagner, Matthias, Bös, Klaus, Jekauc, Darko, Karger, Claudia, Mewes, Nadine, Oberger, Jennifer, Reimers, Anne, Schlenker, Lars, Worth, Annette, Woll, Alexander
The Motorik-Modul (MoMo) Longitudinal Study aims to contribute to long-term improvement in the health of German children and adolescents by focusing on: (i) the development of physical fitness and physical activity (including period effects); (ii) the individual and physical/social environmental determinants of the development of physical fitness and physical activity; and (iii) the impact of physical fitness and physical activity on the development of physical and mental health. The MoMo Longitudinal Study began with a nationwide representative sample of 4529 children and adolescents who ranged in age from 4–17 years at the study baseline (2003–2006). The first survey wave of the MoMo Longitudinal Study was conducted between 2009 and 2012, with two subsequent survey waves to be conducted between 2014 and 2016 and 2018 and 2020, respectively. The MoMo Longitudinal Study includes a physical fitness test profile, a physical activity questionnaire, and subjective and objective measures of health from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (KiGGS). Data access is provided on request (email@example.com). For further information, including a complete list of publications please visit www.motorik-modul.de.