Incentives for Research Effort : An Evolutionary Model of Publication Markets with Double-Blind and Open Review
2023, Radzvilas, Mantas, De Pretis, Francesco, Peden, William, Tortoli, Daniele, Osimani, Barbara
Contemporary debates about scientific institutions and practice feature many proposed reforms. Most of these require increased efforts from scientists. But how do scientists’ incentives for effort interact? How can scientific institutions encourage scientists to invest effort in research? We explore these questions using a game-theoretic model of publication markets. We employ a base game between authors and reviewers, before assessing some of its tendencies by means of analysis and simulations. We compare how the effort expenditures of these groups interact in our model under a variety of settings, such as double-blind and open review systems. We make a number of findings, including that open review can increase the effort of authors in a range of circumstances and that these effects can manifest in a policy-relevant period of time. However, we find that open review’s impact on authors’ efforts is sensitive to the strength of several other influences.
Team reasoning without a hive mind
2021, Radzvilas, Mantas, Karpus, Jurgis
The theory of team reasoning has been developed to resolve a long-lasting niggle in orthodox game theory. Despite its intuitive appeal, the theory has received little attention from mainstream game theorists and economists to date. We believe that this is so because of two theoretic issues, which the theory of team reasoning itself needs to resolve. One of these presents a worry that the theory achieves its explanatory and predictive success by abandoning ontological individualism — a fundamental precept in mainstream economics, including game theory. Here we argue that the theory of team reasoning is compatible with ontological individualism. We show that the core principles of the theory — those that give rise to the above worry — are in fact implicitly assumed in some branches of orthodox game theory itself. We also argue against the methodological approach that construes team reasoning as involving a transformation of the interacting players’ payoffs in modelled games.
Game theory and rational reasoning
2022, Karpus, Jurgis, Radzvilas, Mantas
We review what the standard approach and a number of nonstandard approaches to game theory say about what rational agents should do, should believe about others’ actions and beliefs, and can expect to attain when they interact with other rational and not rational agents. We address these questions from the point of view of the standard approach, which is based on the postulate of best-response reasoning, and discuss how a number of alleged shortcomings of the standard approach have been proposed to be remedied by the theories of Pareto optimization, team reasoning, and virtual bargaining. We consider the case for dropping the fundamental but often problematic assumption of common belief in rationality. In the context of simultaneous-move games, we discuss the theory of level-k reasoning, and in the context of sequential-move games, we review recent developments in epistemic game theory.
Team reasoning and a measure of mutual advantage in games
2017-08-29, Karpus, Jurgis, Radzvilas, Mantas
The game theoretic notion of best-response reasoning is sometimes criticized when its application produces multiple solutions of games, some of which seem less compelling than others. The recent development of the theory of team reasoning addresses this by suggesting that interacting players in games may sometimes reason as members of a team – a group of individuals who act together in the attainment of some common goal. A number of properties have been suggested for team-reasoning decision-makers’ goals to satisfy, but a few formal representations have been discussed. In this paper we suggest a possible representation of these goals based on the notion of mutual advantage. We propose a method for measuring extents of individual and mutual advantage to the interacting decision-makers, and define team interests as the attainment of outcomes associated with maximum mutual advantage in the games they play.
A Battle in the Statistics Wars : a simulation-based comparison of Bayesian, Frequentist and Williamsonian methodologies
2021-12, Radzvilas, Mantas, Peden, William, De Pretis, Francesco
The debates between Bayesian, frequentist, and other methodologies of statistics have tended to focus on conceptual justifications, sociological arguments, or mathematical proofs of their long run properties. Both Bayesian statistics and frequentist (“classical”) statistics have strong cases on these grounds. In this article, we instead approach the debates in the “Statistics Wars” from a largely unexplored angle: simulations of different methodologies’ performance in the short to medium run. We used Big Data methods to conduct a large number of simulations using a straightforward decision problem based around tossing a coin with unknown bias and then placing bets. In this simulation, we programmed four players, inspired by Bayesian statistics, frequentist statistics, Jon Williamson’s version of Objective Bayesianism, and a player who simply extrapolates from observed frequencies to general frequencies. The last player served a benchmark function: any worthwhile statistical methodology should at least match the performance of simplistic induction. We focused on the performance of these methodologies in guiding the players towards good decisions. Unlike an earlier simulation study of this type, we found no systematic difference in performance between the Bayesian and frequentist players, provided the Bayesian used a flat prior and the frequentist used a low confidence level. The Williamsonian player was also able to perform well given a low confidence level. However, the frequentist and Williamsonian players performed poorly with high confidence levels, while the Bayesian was surprisingly harmed by biased priors. Our study indicates that all three methodologies should be taken seriously by philosophers and practitioners of statistics.