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Oscillatory correlates of executive functions in healthy subjects and schizophrenic patients

Oscillatory correlates of executive functions in healthy subjects and schizophrenic patients

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KUSTERMANN, Thomas, 2018. Oscillatory correlates of executive functions in healthy subjects and schizophrenic patients [Dissertation]. Konstanz: University of Konstanz

@phdthesis{Kustermann2018Oscil-48963, title={Oscillatory correlates of executive functions in healthy subjects and schizophrenic patients}, year={2018}, author={Kustermann, Thomas}, address={Konstanz}, school={Universität Konstanz} }

<rdf:RDF xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" xmlns:bibo="http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/" xmlns:dspace="http://digital-repositories.org/ontologies/dspace/0.1.0#" xmlns:foaf="http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/" xmlns:void="http://rdfs.org/ns/void#" xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#" > <rdf:Description rdf:about="https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/rdf/resource/123456789/48963"> <dspace:hasBitstream rdf:resource="https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/bitstream/123456789/48963/3/Kustermann_2-11wok1c1vevo70.pdf"/> <dcterms:title>Oscillatory correlates of executive functions in healthy subjects and schizophrenic patients</dcterms:title> <bibo:uri rdf:resource="https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/handle/123456789/48963"/> <dcterms:issued>2018</dcterms:issued> <dspace:isPartOfCollection rdf:resource="https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/rdf/resource/123456789/43"/> <dc:date rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime">2020-03-06T11:54:23Z</dc:date> <dcterms:hasPart rdf:resource="https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/bitstream/123456789/48963/3/Kustermann_2-11wok1c1vevo70.pdf"/> <dcterms:isPartOf rdf:resource="https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/rdf/resource/123456789/43"/> <foaf:homepage rdf:resource="http://localhost:8080/jspui"/> <void:sparqlEndpoint rdf:resource="http://localhost/fuseki/dspace/sparql"/> <dc:rights>terms-of-use</dc:rights> <dc:contributor>Kustermann, Thomas</dc:contributor> <dc:language>eng</dc:language> <dcterms:available rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime">2020-03-06T11:54:23Z</dcterms:available> <dcterms:abstract xml:lang="eng">Schizophrenia is one of most debilitating and persistent mental disorders. The current standard treatments help to improve psychotic symptoms, but are largely unsuccessful at improving the long-term outlook of patients with schizophrenia. It is now widely assumed that cognitive deficits are a core symptom of schizophrenia and to a large degree responsible for the poor long-term outcomes. Executive functions have been shown to be severely impaired in schizophrenia. Due to the variety of cognitive processes involved, executive functions are well-suited to investigate cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. There is still considerable uncertainty to what extent a common, unitary neural mechanism underlies these cognitive deficits or whether cognitive deficits are domain specific. Thus, the present thesis aimed to explicate the role of brain oscillatory activity for a) cognition in healthy subjects, specifically executive functioning and b) the cognitive impairments prevalent in schizophrenia. In order to investigate common and diverging patterns of brain activity of executive functioning in healthy controls and schizophrenic patients, tasks assumed to reflect different executive functioning domains were employed. The first study used a cued delayed saccade task to probe for differences in lateralized oscillatory activity under attentional demand in healthy controls and schizophrenic patients. Results confirmed patterns of lateralized oscillatory activity in the alpha band of healthy controls. The pattern of lateralized activity was found to be decreased in magnitude in schizophrenic patients, indicating deficient attention allocation compared to healthy controls. In the second study, a lateralized working memory Sternberg task was used in healthy controls to further explicate the role of alpha oscillations in executive functions. In line with study one, lateralized oscillatory activity was found in the alpha band. This pattern varied with working memory load, as did a later bilateral alpha power increase during the trial. In addition to posterior alpha activity, phase synchrony in the theta band was found to mediate to communication between upstream areas in the frontal cortex and visual areas. A modified version of the second study’s Sternberg task was used to specify putative differences in oscillatory activity between healthy controls and schizophrenic patients in the third study. Likely due to the shortened stimulus presentation no lateralized oscillatory activity was evident in either group. Instead, aligned with study two, bilateral load dependent alpha power increases were found in healthy controls, but not schizophrenic patients. Further, communication was more dependent on upstream areas in the temporal lobe in schizophrenic patients than in healthy controls. Overall, alpha oscillations were shown to be crucially involved across all tasks, supporting their fundamental involvement in executive functions. Similarly, the abnormal oscillatory activity in schizophrenia patients was consistently observed in the alpha band. The results indicate an underlying aberrant excitatory/inhibitory balancing in schizophrenia patients might be responsible for the observed cognitive deficits. This interpretation opens up new venues for the therapy of schizophrenia using pharmacological as well as cognitive remediation treatments.</dcterms:abstract> <dc:creator>Kustermann, Thomas</dc:creator> <dcterms:rights rdf:resource="https://rightsstatements.org/page/InC/1.0/"/> </rdf:Description> </rdf:RDF>

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