Quantum Computing with Spin and Valley Qubits in Quantum Dots

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ROHLING, Niklas, 2015. Quantum Computing with Spin and Valley Qubits in Quantum Dots [Dissertation]. Konstanz: University of Konstanz

@phdthesis{Rohling2015Quant-31435, title={Quantum Computing with Spin and Valley Qubits in Quantum Dots}, year={2015}, author={Rohling, Niklas}, address={Konstanz}, school={Universität Konstanz} }

2015-07-15T12:02:47Z Rohling, Niklas Quantum Computing with Spin and Valley Qubits in Quantum Dots Rohling, Niklas This thesis addresses the concept of quantum computing with semiconductor quantum dots. The basic unit of a quantum computer is a quantum mechanical two-level system, the so-called quantum bit (qubit). The qubit can be defined as the spin of an electron confined in a quantum dot or as a two-dimensional subspace of the Hilbert space for several spins. Some semiconductors have several minima in their conduction band, socalled valleys. A two-dimensional valley degree of freedom can also be considered as a qubit.<br /><br />In this thesis, quantum registers storing spin as well as valley qubits are described theoretically. Virtual hopping yields an exchange interaction between neighboring quantum dots, which reduces the energy of antisymmetric spin-valley states according to the Pauli principle. Considering the spin and the valley degrees of freedom of two electrons in neighboring quantum dots as qubits, the exchange interaction is a four-qubit interaction. In this thesis, it will be shown that it is, nevertheless, possible to generate a universal two-qubit gate for spin qubits or for valley qubits by combining the exchange interaction and individual single-qubit gates. The exchange interaction in this two-electron double quantum dot directly provides a universal two-qubit gate for one spin and one valley qubit as well. For this, the qubits are defined as suitable subspaces, spanned by the singlet and one triplet state of the spin and the valley states, respectively, Using those gates, arbitrary quantum operations can be performed for single-spin and single-valley qubits in the same quantum register, where in one double quantum dot the quantum states are restricted to the singlet-triplet subspace. While in this register single-spin and single-valley rotations are required, these gates are dispensable in a quantum register storing spin and valley singlet-triplet qubits. The single-qubit operations, in this case, can be provided by the exchange interaction and a gradient in the energy splitting of spin and valley states when the spin qubit is stored in a double quantum dot with spin degrees of freedom only and when the spin states in the double quantum dot which stores the valley qubit are polarized. For providing the two-qubit gate, the spin and the valley qubits need to be stored in the same double quantum dot. The crucial task for this register is to interchange the spin of a spin-only and a spin-valley quantum dot in order to switch between the single-qubit and the two-qubit operation mode. This interchanging of the spin can be achieved by a valley-depending virtual hopping between the quantum dots.<br /><br />Furthermore, echo sequences for a so-called exchange-only qubit are considered. An exchange-only qubit is defined as a subspace in a system of three electron spins in a triple quantum dot. An inhomogeneous magnetic field, which may be caused by nuclear spins in the semiconductor, can lead to decoherence and leakage, i.e., the state might leave the qubit subspace. Suppressing this effect by an echo sequence which consists of pulses interchanging neighboring spin states, so-called SWAP gates, was proposed. Controllability over these quantum operations is provided via the exchange interaction. In this thesis, the performance of different such sequences is investigated. The analysis shows that optimization strategies developed for single spin echoes can be adapted for the three spin system. The echo sequences can be different in their order of applied SWAP gates interchanging the spins in the first and second dots or in the second and third dots. The noise suppression performance depends slightly on this order of SWAP<br />gates.<br /><br />For two spins in a double quantum dot a scheme for quantum state tomography is presented. The corresponding measurement operators are constructed from a set of mutually unbiased bases of the four-dimensional two-qubit Hilbert space. These measurements are represented by short sequences of no more than three elementary quantum gates and projective measurements by the well-established spin-to-charge conversion. 2015-07-15T12:02:47Z eng terms-of-use 2015

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